Awjila Text XIV

Žḥá d-aləṣlə́ʕ; baʕadén iwín n- íšf yəʕə́dd i- wa-təzzámən u izəm-ís.
‘Juha was bald; Then one day he went to the barber and he shaved him.’

  • Žḥá Personal name
  • d- Copula
  • aləṣlə́ʕ ‘bald’
  • baʕadén ‘then’
  • iwín ‘one’
  • n- Genitive particle
  • íšf ‘day’
  • yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • i- Dative particle
  • wa-təzzámən ‘barber’, literally a relative clause ‘the one who always shaves’
  • u ‘and’
  • izəm- ‘to shave’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. Indirect object pronoun

Baʕadén ikkə́mməl yəfk-ís ənnúṣ n- əlbarát.
‘When he was finshed he gave him half the money’

  • Baʕadén ‘then’
  • ikkə́mməl ‘to finish’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yəfk- ‘to give’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. Indirect object pronoun
  • ənnúṣ ‘half’
  • n- Genitive particle
  • əlbarát ‘money’

Baʕadén in-ís wa-təzzámən: af-iwá təfki(t)-dík (ə)nnúṣ n- əlḥəqq-ənnúk?
‘Then the Barber said to him: why did you give me half of what is my right?’

  • Baʕadén ‘then’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. Indirect object pronoun
  • wa-təzzámən ‘barber’
  • af-iwá ‘why’
  • təfki(t)- ‘to give’ pf.2sg.
  • -dík 1sg. Indirect object pronoun
  • (ə)nnúṣ ‘half’
  • n- Genitive particle
  • əlḥəqq- ‘one’s right’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive

In-ís Žḥá: s-kə́mma (or: sə́mma) nək d-ələ́ṣləʕ.
‘Juha said to him: Because I am bald.’

  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. Indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • s-kə́mma ‘because’
  • nək ‘I’
  • d- Copula
  • ələ́ṣləʕ ‘bald’

-M. van Putten

Awjila Text XIII

Yəškí Žḥá s-ar (or: s-ġár) təfillí-nnəs w- ídd-əs iríw fəllí-s təkabə́rt təzwáġt u yərfəʕ-tíy-a af agərəṭ-ə́nnəs.
‘Juha left his house and with him (his) child who wore a red shirt and he carried him on his neck.’

  • Yəškí ‘to leave’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • s-ar ‘from’
  • təfillí- ‘head’
  • -nnəs 3sg. possessive suffix
  • w- ‘and’
  • ídd-əs ‘with him’
  • iríw ‘child’
  • fəllí-s ‘on him’, used as a possessive phrase
  • təkabə́rt ‘shirt’
  • təzwáġt ‘red’ f.sg.
  • u ‘and’
  • yərfəʕ-…-a ‘to carry’ res.3sg.m.
  • -tíy 3sg.m direct object pronoun
  • af ‘on’
  • agərəṭ- ‘neck’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive suffix

Bəʕədén ittuwí-t u yəqqím idəwwár fəllí-s u nəttín af agərəṭ-ə́nnəs u itənn-ís i-kúll amə́dən: dgulít-ká iríw fəllí-s təkabə́rt təzwáġt?
‘Then he forgot him and he started looking around for him and he (was) on his neck and he said to each person: Have you not seen a child wearing a red shirt?’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • ittuwí– ‘to forget’ pf.3sf.m.
  • -t 3sg.m direct object pronoun
  • u ‘and’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay, remain’ pf.3sg.m. Used as an inchoative auxiliary.
  • idəwwár ‘to look around’ impf.3sg.m.
  • fəllí-s ‘on him’, as a preposition ‘on’ is often used in Berber languages to indicate an object that has no power to manipulate the result of an action. This seems to apply for Aujila as well (Also compare the use of ‘on’ with the verb ‘to lie’ in Text V).
  • u ‘and’
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • af ‘on’
  • agərəṭ- ‘neck’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive suffix
  • u ‘and’
  • itənn-ís ‘to say’ impf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • i- Dative particle
  • kúll ‘all, every, each’
  • amə́dən ‘man, person’
  • dgulít- ‘to see’ pf.2sg.
  • -ká Negative particle
  • iríw ‘child’
  • fəllí-s ‘on him’, used as a possessive phrase
  • təkabə́rt ‘shirt’
  • təzwáġt ‘red’ f.sg.

Bəʕədén in-ís iwín n amə́dən: bálək nəttín wa nníyən af əlkətf-ə́nnək.
‘Then one of the people said: Perhaps he is the one who is on your shoulders?’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • iwín ‘one’
  • n Genitive particle
  • amə́dən ‘man, person’
  • bálək ‘perhaps’
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • wa m.sg. Relative pronoun. used to introduced the cleft sentence that follows
  • nníyən ‘to be, exist’ ptc.
  • af ‘on’
  • əlkətf- ‘shoulder’
  • -ə́nnək 2sg.m. possessive suffix

Bəʕədén yərfə́ʕ Žḥá təgilí-nnəs ar-ẓúṭ igúl iríw w- in-ís y-iríw: ur-ná-k-a-ká bəʕə́d a-tqimát idd-í təʕəddít-ká?
‘Then Juha lifted his head up and saw the child and said to the child: did I not tell you when you are with me, do not go (anywhere)?’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yərfə́ʕ ‘to carry’ pf.3sg.m. with ar-ẓúṭ ‘to lift’
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • təgilí- ‘head’
  • -nnəs 3sg. possessive suffix
  • ar-ẓúṭ ‘up’
  • igúl ‘to see’ pf.3sg.m.
  • iríw ‘child’
  • w- ‘and’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • y- Dative particle
  • iríw ‘child’
  • ur- Negative particle. This is the original Berber particle, part of the double negation ur. It is very rare in Aujila.
  • ná-…-a ‘to say’ res.1sg. with asimilation of the 1sg. ending –əḫ to –a before a indirect object suffix.
  • -(i)k 2sg.m. Indirect object suffix
  • -ká Negative particle
  • bəʕə́d  ‘when’
  • a-tqimát ‘to stay, remain’ fut.2sg.
  • idd-í ‘with me’
  • təʕəddít- ‘to go’, this is a negative imperative. The imperative cannot be used for negative form. Usually the impf.2sg.  is used. If this is the impf.2sg.  it is indistinguishable from the 2sg. pf.
  • -ká Negative particle

-M. van Putten

Awjila Text XII

Iwín n íšf yəškí Žḥá ssúk-i w- ídd-əs aẓiəṭ-ə́nnəs.
‘One day Juha left for the market and with him (came) his donkey.’

  • Iwín  ‘one’
  • n ‘of’
  • íšf ‘day’
  • yəškí ‘to leave’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • ssúk- ‘market’, surprisingly transcribed with a k rather than q (< Ar. sūq).
  • -i Locative particle
  • w- ‘and’
  • ídd-əs ‘with him’
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive

Bəʕədén isə́ġ ḥə́nṭa n əlxə́ḍərət w- iggí-tət skárət-i lákə́n yə́lġəm a-igí-tət af aẓíṭ w- igí-tət af əlkətf-ə́nnəs u yəʕə́dd yəlbíb-a af aẓíṭ-ə́nnəs.
‘Then he bought some vegetables and he put them in a sack, but he did not want to put them on the donkey, and he punt them on his shoulders and he went and climbed on his donkey.’

  • Bəʕədén  ‘afterwards’
  • isə́ġ  ‘to buy’ pf.3sg.m.
  • ḥə́nṭa ‘a bit, some’
  • n ‘of’
  • əlxə́ḍərət ‘vegetables’
  • w- ‘and’
  • iggí-  ‘to put; to do’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -tət 3sg.f. direct object pronoun
  • skárət- ‘sack’
  • -i Locative particle
  • lákən ‘but’
  • yə́lġəm ‘to refuse, to not want’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-igí- ‘to put; to do’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -tət 3sg.f. direct object pronoun
  • af ‘on’
  • aẓíṭ ‘donkey’
  • w- ‘and’
  • iggí-  ‘to put; to do’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -tət 3sg.f. direct object pronoun
  • af ‘on’
  • əlkətf-  ‘should’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive
  • u ‘and’
  • yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yəlbíb-a ‘to mount, ascend’ res.3sg.m.
  • af ‘on’
  • aẓíṭ ‘donkey’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive

Bəʕədén igulí-t iwinán n-əṣṣaḥb-ə́nnəs təbarút-i yənšə́d-t w- in-ís: a-dgát-ká škárət af aẓíəṭ?
‘Then one of his friends saw him on the road and asked him and said: Should you not put the sack on the donkey?’

  • Bəʕədén  ‘afterwards’
  • igulí- ‘to see’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object
  • iwinán ‘one’
  • n- ‘of’
  • əṣṣaḥb- ‘friend’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive
  • təbarút- ‘road’
  • -i Locative particle
  • yənšə́d- ‘to ask’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object
  • w- ‘and’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • a-dgát- ‘to put; to do’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -ká Negative particle
  • škárət ‘sack’
  • af ‘on’
  • aẓíəṭ ‘donkey’

In-ís Žḥá: ərwə́ʕ s-ġar rə́bbi a-y-amə́dən;
‘Juha said to him: Be afraid of God, o man!’

  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • ərwə́ʕ ‘to be afraid’ imp.sg.
  • s-ġar  ‘from’
  • rə́bbi  ‘god’
  • a-y- Vocative particle
  • amə́dən ‘man’

issúdda-ká nək əlbə́bxa af aẓíṭ u təġəllít-i əḥmə́lx fəll-ís škárət u a-rná-s əttəʕə́b af əttəʕəb-ə́nnəs.
‘Is it not enough that I am mounted on the donkey, and you want me to load the sack on him and add a burden upon his burden?’

  • issúdd-a- ‘to be enough’ res.3sg.m.
  • -ká Negative particle
  • nək ‘I’
  • əlbə́bx-a ‘to mount, climb’ res.1sg., A surprising lack of raising of the schwa to í. This may be an indication that the underlying form is əlbub.
  • af ‘on’
  • aẓíṭ ‘donkey’
  • u ‘and’
  • təġəllít- ‘to want’ pf.2sg.
  • -i 1sg. direct object
  • əḥmə́lx ‘to load’ pf.1sg.m.
  • fəll-ís ‘on him’
  • škárət ‘sack’
  • u ‘and’
  • a-rná- ‘to add’ fut.1sg.
  • -(i)s 3sg. indirect object
  • əttəʕə́b ‘burden’
  • af ‘on’
  • əttəʕəb ‘burden’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive

-M. van Putten

Awjila Text XI

Márra Žḥá yəʕídd-a ssúq-i.
‘One day, Juha had gone to the Market.’

  • Márra ‘once’
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • yəʕídd-a ‘to go’ res.3sg.m.
  • ssúq- ‘market’
  • -i  locative particle

U nəttín ixəṭṭám af míddən u míddən səllámən fəll-ís s-kə́mma məktar n-míddən ššənən-tíy-a.
‘And he would meet people and the people greeted him, because the majority of the people knew him.’

  • U ‘and’
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • ixəṭṭám ‘to meet with’ impf.3sg.m.
  • af ‘on’, obligatory preposition with the verb. Probably a calque on LA īxaṭṭǝm ʕalā ‘to pick someone up, to drop by someone’ (p.c. Benkato)
  • míddən ‘people’
  • ‘and’
  • míddən ‘people’
  • səllámən ‘to greet’ impf.3sg.m.
  • fəll-ís ‘on him’ obligatory preposition with the verb.
  • s-kə́mma  ‘because’
  • məktar ‘majority, many’
  • n- Genitive particle
  • míddən ‘people’
  • ššənən-…-a ‘to know’ res.3pl.m.
  • -tíy 3sg.m. direct object pronoun, with an interesting added -íy- in the resultative, which may be an indication that originally the -t was -tə.

Bəʕədén igúl iwínan, yušá-d Žḥá issə́lləm fəll-ís lʕálla.
‘Then he saw somone, Juha came and greeted him greatly.’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • igúl ‘to see’ pf.3sg.m.
  • iwínan ‘one’, here to be read as  ‘someone’
  • yušá-d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • issə́lləm ‘to greet’ pf.3sg.m.
  • fəll-ís ‘on him’
  • lʕálla ‘much, many’

Bəʕədén amə́dən yənšə́d Žḥá w- in-ís: ku tšənt-íy-a s-ələwwál?
‘Then the man asked Juha and said: Have you known me already?’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • amə́dən ‘man’
  • yənšə́d ‘to ask’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • w- ‘and’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. + 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ku  ‘you’
  • tšənt-…-a ‘to know’ res.3sg.m.
  • -íy 1sg. direct object suffix
  • s-ələwwál ‘already’

Bəʕədén in-ís Žḥá: la ġar gulix-kúy-a tudínta əlqəbbúṭ am wa-nnúk w- əlʕəmámət am ta-nnúk,
əḥsə́bx-kúy-a ʔənn-ək ku d-nə́k.
‘Then Juha said to him: No but, I saw you wearing a robe like mine and a turban like mine, (so) I figured that you are me!’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. + 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • la ‘no’
  • ġar ‘but’
  • gulix-…-a ‘to see’ res.3sg.m.
  • -kúy 2sg. direct object suffix
  • tudínta ‘to wear’ res.2sg.
  • əlqəbbúṭ ‘robe’
  • am ‘like’
  • wa-nnúk ‘mine’ m.sg.
  • w- ‘and’
  • əlʕəmámət ‘turban’
  • am ‘like’
  • ta-nnúk ‘mine’ f.sg.
  • əḥsə́bx-…-a ‘to figure; to consider s.o.’ res.1sg.
  • -kúy 2sg. direct object pronoun
  • ʔənn-ək Arabic complementizer, cf. ELA inn-ak
  • ku ‘you’
  • d- Copula
  • nə́k ‘I’

-M. van Putten

Awjila Text X

Yušá-d Žḥá márra iġə́lli a-yə́ssən akəllim-ə́nnəs amakán baʕíd
‘One day Juha wanted to send his servant to a distant place,’

  • Yušá-d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m., Translating this verb as such in the english translation sounds wrong, but it seems to be part of a fixed expression with márra to mean ‘one day …’.
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • márra ‘once’
  •  iġə́lli ‘to want’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-yə́ssən ‘to send’ fut.3sg.m.
  • akəllim- ‘servant’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive
  • amakán ‘place’
  • baʕíd ‘distant’

lákən akəllím iššən-ká amakán w- iššən-ká təbarút u yə́rwəʕ a-yúġər w- in-ís i-Žḥá: rwíḥḥa a-uġə́rx.
‘but the servant did not know the place and he did not know the way and he was afraid to get lot and said to Juha: I am afraid to get lost.’

  • lákən ‘but’
  • akəllím ‘servant’
  • iššən- ‘to know’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ká Negative particle
  • amakán ‘place’
  • w- ‘and’
  • iššən- ‘to know’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ká Negative particle
  • təbarút  ‘way’
  • u ‘and’
  • yə́rwəʕ ‘to be afraid’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-yúġər ‘to get lost’ fut.3sg.m.
  • w- ‘and’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • i- Dative marker
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • rwíḥḥa ‘to be afraid’ res.1sg. with partial assimilation of ʕx > ḥḥ
  • a-uġə́rx ‘to get lost’ fut.1sg.

In-ís Žḥá: əndú tuġə́rt yi-d-díla a-š-əglá-k təbarút.
‘Juha said: If you get lost, come here and I will show you the way.’

  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • əndú ‘if’
  • tuġə́rt ‘to get lost’ pf.2sg.
  • yi-d- ‘to come’ suppletive imp.sg.
  • díla ‘here’
  • a-š-əglá- ‘to show’ fut.1sg., causative of ‘to see’, 1sg. suffix –x, when preceded by a consonant or schwa, and followed by a direct object pronoun becomes -a
  • -(i)k 2sg.m. indirect object pronoun
  • təbarút ‘way’

M. van Putten

Awjila Text IX

Yəʕádd Žḥá əlbəḥr-i iġə́lli a-isə́bbəḥ u yəkkə́š (ə)dbuš-ə́nnəs;
Juha went to the see, he wanted to swim and took off his clothes.’

  • Yəʕádd to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • əlbəḥr- ‘sea’
  • -i Locative particle
  • iġə́lli ‘to want’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-isə́bbəḥ ‘to swim’ fut.3sg.m.
  • u ‘and’
  • yəkkə́š ‘to take off’ pf.3sg.m.
  • (ə)dbuš- ‘clothes’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive

bəʕədén ušán-d qəṭṭáʕan ukə́rən ədbuš-ə́nnəs.
Then came thieves, they stole his clothes.’

  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • ušán-d ‘to come’ pf.3pl.m.
  • qəṭṭáʕan ‘thieves’
  • ukə́rən ‘to steal’ pf.3pl.m.
  • ədbuš- ‘clothes’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive

Bəʕədén yəkrí tfillí-nnəs ʕəryán.
Then he returned to his house naked.’

  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəkrí ‘to return’ pf.3sg.m.
  • tfillí-  ‘house’
  • -nnəs 3sg. possessive
  • ʕəryán ‘naked’

Bəʕədén u bəʕə́d sə́bəʕa ayyam yəʕádd mərrát (mərrátət) aqúṭət iġə́lli a-isə́bbəḥ əlbəḥr-i;
Then and after seven days he went another time, he wanted to swim in the sea.’

  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • u ‘and’
  • bəʕə́d ‘after’
  • sə́bəʕa ‘seven’
  • ayyam ‘days’
  • yəʕádd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • mərrát ‘time’
  • aqúṭət ‘other, another’ f.sg.
  • iġə́lli ‘to want’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-isə́bbəḥ ‘to swim’ fut.3sg.m.
  • əlbəḥr- ‘sea’
  • -i Locative particle

yuná s-ədbuš-ə́nnəs əlmərrat-áya.
He entered with his clothes this time.’

  • yuná ‘to enter’ pf.3sg.m.
  • s- ‘with’
  • ədbuš- ‘clothes’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive
  • əlmərrat- ‘time’
  • -áya ‘this’ sg.

Bəʕədén igulí-t iwinán n-əṣṣaḥb-ə́nnəs, in-ís: ddíwa ttudík, a-ttúnat s-ədbuš-ə́nnək əlbəḥr-i.
Then one of his friends saw him, he said: What is wrong with you? you will enter the sea with your clothes on!’

  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • igulí- ‘to see’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • iwinán ‘one’
  • n- Genitive particle
  • əṣṣaḥb- ‘friends’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ddíwa ‘what’
  • ttudík ‘so, like that’
  • a-ttúnat ‘to enter’ fut.2sg.
  • s- ‘with’
  • ədbuš- ‘clothes’
  • -ə́nnək 2sg.m. possessive
  • əlbəḥr- ‘sea’
  • -i Locative particle

Yəkrí fəll-ís Žḥá w- in-ís: a-unáx s-ədbuš-ənnúk axír (axér) a-ukərə́n-tən qəṭṭáʕan.
Juha answered and said: It is better that I enter with my clothes, than that thieves will steal them!’

  • Yəkrí ‘to return; to answer s.o. (+ af, fəll)’  pf.3sg.m.
  • fəll-ís ‘on him’
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • w- ‘and’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg indirect object pronoun
  • a-unáx ‘to enter’ fut.3sg.m.
  • s- ‘with’
  • ədbuš- ‘clothes’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive
  • axír ‘better’
  • a-ukərə́n- ‘to steal’ fut.3pl.m.
  • qəṭṭáʕan  ‘thieves’

-M. van Putten

Awjila Text VIII

Yəškí iwín n əlʕáləm iddəhwár lhəwáyyi u yəqqím iddəhwár ašál-i kkúll inə́ššəd əlʕulamá u iġəllə́b-tən u nəttín iddəhwár ir iṭúg Žḥá.
‘A scholar left and always went around outside and he started going around in the whole village and he would always ask scholars and beat them and he was going around until he met Juha.’

  • Yəškí ‘to leave’ pf.3sg.m.
  • iwín ‘one’
  • n Genitive particle
  • əlʕáləm ‘scholar’
  • iddəhwár ‘to go around’ impf.3sg.m.
  • lhəwáyyi ‘the outside’
  • u ‘and’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m., used as an inchoative auxiliary.
  • iddəhwár ‘to go around’ impf.3sg.m.
  • ašál- ‘village’
  • -i Locative particle
  • kkúll ‘all, whole’
  • inə́ššəd  ‘to ask’ impf.3sg.m.
  • əlʕulamá ‘scholars’
  • u ‘and’
  • iġəllə́b- ‘to best s.o., defeat s.o.’
  • -tən 3pl.m. direct object pronoun
  • u ‘and’
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • iddəhwár ‘to go around’ impf.3sg.m.
  • ir ‘until’
  • iṭúg ‘to meet’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal name

Bəʕədén inšə́t-t w-in-ís: mag ínni ənnúṣṣ ən təmúrt kkúll?
‘Afterwards he asked him and he said: Where is the center of the whole world?’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • inšə́t- ‘to ask’ pf.3sg.m. with assimilated final t.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • w- ‘and’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg indirect object pronoun
  • mag ‘where?’
  • ínni ‘to be, exist’ pf.3sg.m.
  • ənnúṣṣ ‘half, middle’
  • ən Genitive particle
  • təmúrt ‘earth’
  • kkúll ‘all, whole’

In-ís Žḥá: aməkán wa ínni aẓiəṭ-ənnúk w-əndú tṣəddəqt-íya-ká əžvə́ṭ təmúrt.
‘And Juha said: The place where my donkey is and if you don’t believe me, measure the earth.’

  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • aməkán ‘place’
  • wa m.sg. relative pronoun
  • ínni ‘to be, exist’ pf.3sg.m.
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive
  • w- ‘and’
  • əndú ‘if’
  • tṣəddəqt-…-ya ‘to believe’ res.2sg.
  • 1sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • -ká Negative particle
  • əžvə́ṭ ‘to measure’ imp.sg.
  • təmúrt ‘earth’

Itəḥə́yyər əlʕáləm w-inšə́t-t: ammágwa əlʕə́dəd nə-nǧúm?
‘The scholars was confused and asked him: How much is the number of stars?’

  • Itəḥə́yyər ‘to be confused’ pf.3sg.m.
  • əlʕáləm ‘scholar’
  • w- ‘and’
  • inšə́t- ‘to ask’ pf.3sg.m. with assimilated final t.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • ammágwa ‘how much?’
  • əlʕə́dəd ‘number’
  • nə- Genitive particle
  • nǧúm ‘stars’

In-ís Žḥá: d-əlʕə́dəd n ažə́vu n aẓiəṭ-ənnúk, əndú tṣəddəqt-íya-ká əḥsə́b ənǧúm w-əḥsə́b ažə́vu n aẓiəṭ-ənnúk.
‘Juha said: It is the number of hairs of my donkey, and if you don’ t believe me cound the stars and count the hairs of my donkey.’

  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • d- copula
  • əlʕə́dəd ‘number’
  • n Genitive particle
  • ažə́vu ‘hairs’
  • n Genitive particle
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive
  • əndú ‘if’
  • tṣəddəqt-…-ya ‘to believe’ res.2sg.
  • 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • -ká Negative particle
  • əḥsə́b ‘to count’ imp.sg.
  • nǧúm ‘stars’
  • w- ‘and’
  • əḥsə́b ‘to count’ imp.sg.
  • ažə́vu ‘hairs’
  • n Genitive particle
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive

Bəʕədén yənšə́t-t amə́dən u in-ís: ammágwa əlʕə́dəd n ažə́vu n tamirt-ənnúk?
‘Then the man asked him and said: How much is the number of hairs of my beard?’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yənšə́t- ‘to ask’ pf.3sg.m. with assimilated final t.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • amə́dən ‘man’
  • u ‘and’
  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg indirect object pronoun
  • ammágwa ‘how much?’
  • əlʕə́dəd ‘number’
  • n Genitive particle
  • ažə́vu ‘hairs’
  • n Genitive particle
  • tamirt- ‘beard’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive

In-ís Žḥá: əlʕə́dəd n ažə́vu n tamirt-ə́nnək am əlʕə́dəd n ažə́vu n azíf n aẓiṭ-ənnúk w-əndú tṣəddəqt-í-ya-ká əḥsə́b.
‘Juha said: The number of hairs of your beard are like the number of hairs of the tail of my donkey, and if you don’t believe me, count!’

  • in-ís ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m. with 3sg indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal name
  • əlʕə́dəd ‘number’
  • n Genitive particle
  • ažə́vu ‘hairs’
  • n Genitive particle
  • tamirt- ‘beard’
  • ə́nnək 2sg.m. possessive
  • am ‘like’
  • əlʕə́dəd ‘number’
  • n Genitive particle
  • ažə́vu ‘hairs’
  • n Genitive particle
  • azif ‘tail’
  • n Genitive particle
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive
  • w- ‘and’
  • əndú ‘if’
  • tṣəddəq(t)-…-ya ‘to believe’ res.2sg.
  • -tí 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • -ká Negative particle
  • əḥsə́b ‘to count’ imp.sg.

Bəʕədén ittəwwíyəl amə́dən u yəkrí yəndíma.
‘Then the man was dumbfounded and he returned being sad?’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • ittəwwíyəl ‘to be dumbfounded, amazed’ pf.3sg.m.
  • amə́dən ‘man’
  • u ‘and’
  • yəkrí ‘to return’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yəndíma ‘to be sad, regretful’ res.3sg.m.

M. van Putten