El-Fogaha Text III

Zamán dágəs íggən ən-ṣəlṭán yuġá tməṭṭút tmátar.
‘There once was a sultan who married a beautiful woman.’

  • Zamán dág-əs, Paradisi translates this whole phrase as  as C’era una volta in the vocabulary. It should probably be analyzed as Zamán ‘once’ + dág-əs ‘in it’
  • íggən ən-ṣəlṭán  ‘a/one sultan’
  • yuġá ‘to take’ pf.3sg.m.
  • tməṭṭút  ‘woman’
  • tmátar ‘beautiful’ adj.f.sg.

Yus-áz-d amár íggən wayə́ḍ d yəsk-ás.
‘Another man came to her and did her’

  • Yus-…-d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -áz- 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun.
  • amár ‘man’
  • íggən wayə́ḍ ‘another’, a construction that literally consists of ‘one’ + ‘other’, which can be used adjectivally and is therefore placed after the noun it modifies.
  • d  ‘and’
  • yəsk- ‘to do’  pf.3sg.m., probably euphemistically referring to the fact that he had intercourse with her.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun.

Yəslá si-s əṣṣəlṭán d yəllə́f-tət d yuġá ígget tayə́ṭ.
‘The sultan heard this and divorced her and took another’

  • Yəslá ‘to hear’ pf.3sg.m.
  • si- ‘from’, usually the preposition for ‘from’ is s-ġúr, maybe this simpler, more original form, is lexically bound to the verb ‘to hear’.
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • əṣṣəlṭán ‘sultan’
  • d  ‘and’
  • yəllə́f-  ‘to divorce’  pf.3sg.m.
  • -tət 3sg.f. direct object pronoun
  • d  ‘and’
  • yuġá ‘to take’ pf.3sg.m.
  • ígget tayə́ṭ ‘another’, this time in the feminine form.

Yus-áz-d amár wayə́ḍ d yəsk-ás.
‘Another man came to her and did her’

  • Yus-…-d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -áz- 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun.
  • amár ‘man’
  • wayə́ḍ ‘other’, this time the ‘a/one’  is not specifically mentioned.
  • d  ‘and’
  • yəsk- ‘to do’  pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun.

Yəslá si-s əṣṣəlṭán d yuš-ás əlḥəqq-ə́nnəs d yəllə́f-tət d yə́dwəl d yuġá íggət tayə́ṭ nk-tmátar.
‘The sultan heard this and gave her her due and divorced her and he returned and he took another (woman) that was not beautiful’

  • Yəslá ‘to hear’ pf.3sg.m.
  • si- ‘from’
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • əṣṣəlṭán ‘sultan’
  • d  ‘and’
  • yuš-  ‘to give’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun.
  • əlḥəqq- ‘one’s due’, referring to the returning of the dowry given along with the woman when marrying.
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • d  ‘and’
  • yə́dwəl ‘to return’ pf.3sg.m.
  • d  ‘and’
  • yuġá ‘to take’ pf.3sg.m.
  • ígget tayə́ṭ ‘another’
  • nk- ‘not’
  • tmátar ‘beautiful’ adj.f.sg.

Yəqqím nə́tta ddíd-əs, idəmm-ə́nnəs nk-imátar.
‘He stayed with her, (but) her face was ugly’

  • Yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m.
  • nə́tta  ‘he’
  • ddíd- ‘with’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • idəmm- ‘face’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • nk- ‘not’
  • imátar ‘beautiful’ adj.m.sg.

Tənn-ás: nə́kki dág-i tíṭ.
‘She said to him: I have the (evil) eye’

  • Tənn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.f.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • nə́kki ‘I’
  • dág- ‘in’, but this preposition is used as a possessive construction here.
  • -i 1sg. prepositional pronoun
  • tíṭ ‘eye’

Iwayy-áz-d tussárt, yənn-ás: aẓrə́-tt.
‘He brought to her an old woman, and said to her: visit her’

  • Iwayy-…-d ‘to bring’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -áz- 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • tussárt ‘old, old one’ n./adj.f.sg.
  • yənn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • aẓr- ‘to see’ imp.sg.
  • ə́tt 3sg.f. Direct Object pronoun. It is quite surprising to not see a schwa in between the two t‘s of this pronoun.

Tusə́d tussárt təẓr-ə́ttət.
‘The old woman came and visited her’

  • Tusə́d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m.
  • tussárt ‘old, old one’ n./adj.f.sg.
  • təẓr- ‘to see’ pf.3sg.f.
  • ə́ttət 3sg.f. Direct Object pronoun

Tənn-ás tussárt: “s-man atkə́m-as tíṭ, idəmm-ə́nnas nk-imátar, təškán-nas nk-matárnət, d ənk-tmátar.”
‘The old woman said to her:  “from where would the (evil) eye enter her, her face is ugly, her feet are ugly and (she) is ugly!”

  • Tənn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.f.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • tussárt ‘old, old one’ n./adj.f.sg.
  • s-man ‘from where’
  • atkə́m- ‘to enter’ fut.3sg.f.
  • -as 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • tíṭ ‘eye’
  • idəmm- ‘face’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • nk- ‘not’
  • imátar ‘beautiful’ adj.m.sg.
  • təškán- ‘feet’
  • -nas 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • nk- ‘not’
  • matárnət ‘beautiful’ adj.f.pl.
  • d  ‘and’
  • nk- ‘not’
  • tmátar ‘beautiful’ adj.f.sg.

Yə́nn-as ṣṣəlṭán: “uġíġ lə́wwəla nk-tmátar, uġíġ iggə́t tayə́ḍ nk-tmátar, sakəran-ásnət əssísnət.”
‘The sultan said: “I married another evil (litt. ugly) one, (then) I married another evil (litt. ugly) one, (other men) were doing both of them.”

  • Yə́nn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -as 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • ṣṣəlṭán ‘Sultan’
  • uġíġ ‘to take’  pf.1sg.
  • lə́wwəla ‘first’
  • nk-tmátar  ‘ugly’, confusingly, the same word is used here, as was used earlier for  ‘ugly’, here the word must mean ‘evil’.
  • sakəran- ‘to do’ impf.3pl.m.
  • -ásnət 3pl.f. Indirect Object pronoun
  • əssísnət  ‘the two of them’

“Uġíġ iggə́t tayə́ḍ idəmm-ə́nnas nk-imátar;”
“(then) I married another one, her face was ugly”

  • Uġíġ ‘to take’  pf.1sg.
  • iggə́t tayə́ḍ ‘another’
  • idəmm- ‘face’
  • -ə́nnas 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • nk-imátar ‘ugly’  m.sg., here again meant as ugly.

əqqíməġ ẓə́rrəġ dag təsdána matárnət, ənníġ y-əlli nk-tmátar:
‘And I began to look at beautiful women, and I said to the one that was ugly:’

  • əqqíməġ ‘to stay, remain’ pf.1sg. here used as an inchoative auxiliary
  • ẓə́rrəġ ‘to look’ impf.1sg.
  • dag ‘in’, the standard preposition used to mark the direct object of an imperfect verb.
  • təsdána ‘women’
  • matárnət ‘beautiful’ adj.pl.f.
  • ənníġ ‘to say’ pf.1sg.
  • y- ‘to’
  • əlli relative pronoun
  • nk-tmátar ‘ugly’

“ə́lli nk-ġúr-əs úmmi isákər-as ġəs aġərasən-ánaġ nə́kki ddíd-əm.”
“The one who does not have someone to do her, they want to kill (litt. slaughter) us, you and me.” [Thanks to Lameen (see comments)]

  • ə́lli relative pronoun
  • nk- ‘not’
  • ġúr- ‘to at’, here to mean ‘to have’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • úmmi ‘who’ to be read as ‘someone’.
  • isákər- ‘to do’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -as 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • ġəs ‘to want’  irregular auxiliary verb with no personal conjugation.
  • aġərasən- ‘to slaughter’, pf.3pl.m. takes an indirect object pronoun as its object in all Berber lanuages. The change in of the subject from singular to plural is striking.
  • -ánaġ 1pl. Indirect Object pronoun
  • nə́kki ‘I’
  • ddíd- ‘with, and’
  • -əm 2sg.f. prepositional pronoun

Tənn-ás: “arḍiʕ-ə́nnu ərráʕi n-ə́bi, isákər-id.”
‘She said to him: “My lover (is) the shepherd of my father, he is doing me.”

  • Tənn- ‘to say’  pf.3sg.f.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object prnoun
  • arḍiʕ- ‘lover’
  • -ə́nnu 1sg. possessive pronoun
  • ərráʕi  ‘shepherd’ cf. Ar. rāʕin ‘id.’
  • n- ‘of’
  • ə́bi ‘my father’
  • isákər- ‘to do’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -id 1sg. Direct Object pronoun

Yənn-ás: “ġəs allafə́ġ-šəm.”
‘He said: “I want to divorce you.”

  • Yənn- ‘to say’  pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • ġəs ‘to want’  irregular auxiliary verb with no personal conjugation.
  • allafə́ġ- ‘to divorce’ fut.1sg.
  • -šəm 2sg.f. Direct Object pronoun

Yuš-áš əlḥəqq-ə́nnəs d yəllə́f-tət.
‘He gave her her due and divorced her’

  • Yuš- ‘to give’  pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • əlḥəqq- ‘one’s due’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  •  ‘and’
  • yəllə́f- ‘to divorce’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -tət 3sg.f. Direct Object pronoun

2 Responses to El-Fogaha Text III

  1. Lameen says:

    “ə́lli nk-ġúr-əs úmmi isákər-as”: she who has no one to “do” her.

  2. Pingback: Sokna III « Oriental Berber

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