Awjila Text IV

Yəškí Žḥá ssúq-i u ídd-əs aẓiəṭ-ə́nnəs iġə́lli a-ižiží-t.
‘Juha left for the market and with him (he took) his donkey that he wanted to sell’

  • Yəškí ‘to leave’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal Name
  • ssúq- Souq, market
  • -i locative particle
  • u ‘and’
  • ídd- ‘with’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • iġə́lli ‘to want’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-ižiží- ‘to sell’ fut.3sg.m. A lovely example of the ənC > iC shift, cf. common Berber z-ənz ‘to sell’
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

Bəʕədén yəfkí-t i-ddəllál dax a-ižiží-t.
‘Then he gave it to the auctioneer in order to sell it’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəfkí- ‘to give’ pf.3sg.m.
  • i- ‘to’
  • ddəllál ‘auctioneer’ cf. Ar. dallāl ‘id.’
  • dax ‘in order to’
  • a-ižiží- ‘to sell’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

Bəʕədén yəqqím əddəllál iʕəyáṭ w-itənn-ís: wáya d-aẓíṭ fəšúš, qə́wi u d-aẓíṭ mrí.
‘Then the auctioneer started to shout and said: “This is an agile and strong donkey and it is a good donkey!”

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary verb, always takes the imperfect
  • əddəllál ‘auctioneer’
  • iʕəyáṭ [1] ‘to yell, shout’ impf.3sg.m.
  • w- ‘and’
  • itənn- ‘to say’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun. This pronoun is obligatory, even if there is no obvious indirect object, as is the case here.
  • wáya ‘this’
  • d- Copula
  • aẓíṭ ‘donkey’, notice the difference in the second syllable compared to the first attestation of ‘donkey’ in this text. It is unclear why these two forms exist.
  • fəšúš ‘agile’ adj.m.sg.
  • qə́wi ‘strong’ adj.m.sg. cf.Ar. qawīy ‘id.’
  • u ‘and’
  • d- Copula
  • aẓíṭ ‘donkey’
  • mrí ‘beautiful’

Bəʕədén əqqimán míddən rənníyən fəllí-s s-ar žlan-íya.
‘Then the people started bidding on it from these words’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • əqqimán ‘to stay’ pf.3pl.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary
  • míddən ‘people’
  • rənníyən [2] ‘to bid’ impf.3pl.m.
  • fəllí- ‘on’
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • s-ar ‘from’
  • žlan- ‘words’
  • -íya plural proximal deixis suffix

Bəʕədén yəslá Žḥá žlan-íya w-in-ís y-imán-nəs: la-búdda aẓiəṭ-ənnúk kuwə́yəs ṣəḥíḥ.
‘Then Juha heard these words and he said to himself: “Surely my donkey is really healthy!”

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəslá ‘to hear’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal Name
  • žlan- ‘words’
  • -íya plural proximal deixis suffix
  • w- ‘and’
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun.
  • y- ‘to’
  • imán- reflexive pronoun
  • -nəs 3sg. possessive suffix to go with the reflexive pronoun
  • la-búdda ‘certainly’ cf. Ar. lā budda ‘id.’
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive pronoun
  • kuwə́yəs ‘very’, usually seems to mean ‘good’ but in this case to be taken as modifying the following adjective cf. Ar. kuwayyis ‘nice, fine, pretty, comely, handsome, beautiful’
  • ṣəḥíḥ ‘healthy’ cf. Ar. ṣaḥīḥ ‘healthy, well, sound, healthful, truthful’

Baʕadên yəqqím irə́nni id míddən.
‘Then he started to bid with the people’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary verb, always takes the imperfec
  • irə́nni ‘to bid’ pf.3sg.m.
  • id ‘with’
  • míddən ‘people’

Bəʕədén yəškí əlbarát u yəfkí-tənət y-əddəllál u yuġá aẓíəṭ u yəʕə́dd yəfríḥa.
‘Then he returned the money and gave it to the Auctioneer and took the donkey and went (away) satisfied.’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəškí ‘to leave  (s.th.)’ pf.3sg.m., the verb is used transitively hear and should be understood as ‘to pay back’
  • əlbarát ‘money’ cf. Dial. Ar. barāt ‘money’ a loanword from Turkish Para, an old Turkish currency. (p.c. Souag)
  • u ‘and’
  • y- ‘to’
  • əddəllál ‘auctioneer’
  • u ‘and’
  • yuġá ‘to take’ pf.3sg.m.
  • aẓíəṭ ‘donkey’
  • u ‘and’
  • yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yəfríḥa ‘to be satisfied’ res.3sg.m.

Bəʕədén əlʕəqqáb-i yəqqím nəttín id-dməgní-s u yəḥk-ís af ləḥkáyət n-arənní.
‘Then in the evening, he was with his wife and he told her the story of the auction.’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • əlʕəqqáb- ‘evening’, must be somehow derived from Ar. ʕaqb ‘after’
  • -i locative particle
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m.
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • id- ‘with’
  • dməgní-s ‘his wife’ with kinship possessive pronoun [3]
  • u ‘and’
  • yəḥk- ‘to tell about (+af)’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. ḥakā ‘to tell’
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • af ‘on’
  • ləḥkáyət ‘story’ cf. Ar. ḥikāya(t) ‘story, tale’
  • n- ‘of’
  • arənní ‘bidding, auction’ [4] verbal noun of the verb ərní ‘to bid, increase’

Tn-ís ənnát: “qáma a-nná-k ləḥkáyət axír n-tánnək.”
‘She said to him: “Now I will tell you a story (even) better than yours”

  • Tn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ənnát ‘she’
  • qáma ‘now’
  • a-nná- ‘to say’ fut.1sg.
  • -k 2sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • ləḥkáyət ‘story’
  • axír ‘better’ cf. Ar. xayr ‘better’
  • n- ‘of’ to be read as ‘than’ in comparisons like these
  • tá-nnək ‘that one of yours (m.sg.)’

Tn-ís: “yəxə́ṭṭam síla wa žižán ləmluxə́yət, yəqqím itazə́n-dík bəʕədén gíx əddə́mləž n əddə́həb əlkə́ffət ta-gán əlmizán;”
‘She said to him: “a Mulukhiyah merchant came by here and he started weighing for me, then I put my golden bracelet in the plate which was put on the scales”

  • Tn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • yəxə́ṭṭam ‘to meet, visit’
  • síla ‘here’
  • wa relative pronoun m.sg.
  • žižán ‘to sell’ ptc., together with the previous word ‘one who sells’, thus ‘merchant’
  • ləmluxə́yət ‘Mulukhiyah’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary
  • itazə́n- ‘to weigh’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -dík 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • gíx ‘to put’ pf.1sg.
  • əddə́mləž ‘bracelet’
  • n ‘of’
  • əddə́həb ‘gold’
  • əlkə́ffət ‘plate’
  • ta- f.sg. relative pronoun
  • gán ‘there is, there are’, this construction is unique in the text, gán seems to behave as a verbal participle in a relative sentence. Clearly the meaning of the text is ‘The plate that is on the scales’. The fact that it functionally behaves as a verbal participle here, might be an indication that this particle was originally a participle of the verb ag ‘to do; to put’
  • əlmizán ‘scales’

“bəʕədén yəkkə́mməl uzún-nəs, ənṭə́rx əddəmləž-ənnúk əlmizán-i rwíḥḥa a-ini-dík: kəm ttákərt s-ġár-i.”
“When he finished his weighing, I left my bracelet on the scales, I was afraid that he would say to me: You are stealing from me!”

  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəkkə́mməl ‘to finish’ pf.3sg.m.
  • uzún- ‘weighing’ verbal noun of itazə́n- ‘to weigh’ impf.3sg.m., imperative (usually the citation form) is unkown.
  • ənṭə́rx ‘to leave’ pf.1sg.
  • əddəmləž- ‘bracelet’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive pronoun
  • əlmizán- ‘scales’
  • -i locative particle
  • rwíḥḥa ‘to be afraid’ res.1sg. cf. Ar. rāʕa ‘to fright, scare, alarm’, assimilation of ʕḫ > ḥḥ.
  • a-ini- ‘to say’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -dík 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • kəm ‘you (f.sg.)’
  • ttákərt ‘to steal’ impf.2sg.
  • s-ġár- ‘from’
  • -i 1sg. prepositional pronoun

Bəʕədén in-ís Žḥá: “báhi, nək šuġárx s-əlhəwáyyi u kəm s-ar-əzgíg u tudík a-ttəʕmír təfilli-nnáx.”
‘Then Juha said to her: “very well, I have lost something outside (of the house) and you (have lost something) on the inside (of the house) and thus our house will prosper!”

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal Pronoun
  • báhi ‘good’, used adverbially
  • šuġárx ‘to lose s.th.’ pf.1sg.
  • s- ‘from’
  • əlhəwáyyi ‘outside’
  • u ‘and’
  • kəm ‘you (f.sg.)’
  • s-ar- ‘from’, notice how in very quick succession three different forms of from are used. s-ġár-, s- and s-ar-. In front of pronouns s-ġár- seems to be the only form, but in other contexts the conditioning has not been clearly established.
  • əzgíg ‘inside’
  • u ‘and’
  • tudík ‘so’
  • a-ttəʕmír ‘to prosper’ fut.3sg.f., this verb is used ironically, because, rather than prosper Juha and his wife have become poorer.
  • təfilli- ‘house’
  • -nnáx 1pl. possessive pronoun

M. van Putten

Notes:

[1] Also: iʕəyyáṭ
[2] Also: rənnán
[3] Paradisi mention this word also exists with the usual possessive pronoun təmigní-nnəs
[4] Also: arə́nnu

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