Sokna Text II: The Deaf Family

This is the second of the transcribed texts in Sokni Berber (Sarnelli 1925: 32). It is an absurd story about a family, all members of whom are deaf. Needless to say, they don’t understand each other, and this leads to some humorous confusion.

This text sheds further light on Sokni grammar: there are some interesting parallels with (and divergences from) both Awjili and el-Fogaha Berber, more Arabic words, whole phrases completely in arabic, and a few examples of syntax that parallels dialectal Arabic. I still have no idea what the asterisks (**) that Sarnelli keeps inserting are supposed to mean, so I’ve left them in. Thanks to Marijn for his help in identifying difficult forms. There are still some difficult bits, however, so comments are welcome.

Text II

ténnen zëmân ellân mār ingî isél dë lahl-énnes am nẹ́tta dě lállas am nẹ́tta dě yíllis am nẹ́tta etsuġí-nnes am nẹtta.

They say (that) once there was a man. He did not hear, and his wife (was) like him and his mother (was) like him and his daughter (was) like him and his slave-girl (was) like him.

  • ténnen impf.3pl.m. of itẹ̣́n ‘they say’
  • zëmân n. ‘a time, once’ < Ar. zǝmān
  • ellân 3pl.m.pf. ‘(there) were’
  • ingî isél negative pf.3sg.m. ‘he did not hear’. Compare Fogaha negative particle nk.
  • lahl-énnes n. + 3sg.m. possessive pronoun
  • nẹ́tta 3sg.m. pronoun ‘he’
  • lálla-s n. lallâ ‘mother’ + kinship possessive 3sg. ‘his mother’
  • yílli-s n. + kinship possessive 3sg. ‘his daughter’
  • etsuġí-nnes n.f. etsuġî + 3sg.m. possessive pronoun ‘his slave-girl’

tuṭâ fell-âsen íǧǧet n tafunnâst dállah; yiqqím iḥé̱rret fěll-âs.

A lost cow happened upon them; (and the man) began to plow with it.

  •  tuṭâ pf.3sg.f. ‘it fell’
  • fell-âsen ‘on/to them’ (i.e. ‘it happened to them, it happened upon them’)
  • íǧǧet n tafunnâst numerative construction ‘one cow’
  • dállah ‘lost’. Sarnelle suggests Ar. ð̣āl ‘to get lost, stray’, but more probable is an antecedent form of ḍalla. Perhaps the fem. active participle ḍāll-ah, though that still doesn’t explain the h [Lameen].
  • yiqqím inchoative pf.3sg.m.
  • iḥé̱rret 3sg.m.impf. < Ar. ḥarraṯa ‘to plow’, adapted into Sokn. impf. with geminated C2. Note the inchoative form with auxiliary verb yiqqím, exactly like Awjili.
  • fěll-âs ‘with it’

yusâzed íǧǧẹn ne mmār wu yěnn-âs: allâh i‘âǔnak

A man came to him and said to him “May God assist you!”

  •  yusâzed pf.3sg.m. + 3sg. indirect object pronoun –ās– + ventive particle –d. The s of the object pronoun has assimilated to z, which also occurs in Aujili yuš-iz-d [Marijn].
  • íǧǧẹn ne mmār ‘a man, one man’
  • yěnn-âs pf.3sg.m. + 3sg. indirect object pronoun ‘to him’
  • allâh i‘âǔnak Ar. phrase الله يعاونك ‘may God assist you’

iǧǧẹn itén yěnn-âs: ẖaṭṭên wu ẖûd-hā d iǧǧẹn itẹ́n yěnn-âs: téḥlif an-hā elbúgra búgrětek?

One says (that) [i.e. according to one] he said to him: “Two lines and take it” and one says (that) [i.e. according to another(?)] he said to him: “Do you swear that the cow is your cow?”

  •  itén impf.3sg.m. ‘he says’
  • ẖaṭṭên n. Ar. dual xǝṭṭēn ‘two lines’
  • ẖûd-hā n. Ar. impv.2sg.m. xūð (note WLA /ð/ > /d/) + -hā Ar. 3sg.f.obj.pron. ‘take it (f.)’ (the whole phrase is a codeswitch).
  • téḥlif anhā elbúgra búgrětek codeswitch to the Ar. phrase تحلف انها البقرة بقرتك : ‘you swear that the cow (is) your cow’

wu yẹkkẹ́m i-lahl-énnes yěnn-âs: bāb n tafunâst yugẹ́z-t

And he went in to his wife (and) said to her: “The owner of the cow recognized it.”

  •  yẹkkẹ́m impf.3sg.m. of kẹ́m ‘he entered, went in’
  • i-lahl-énnes directional particle ‘to’ + n.f.sg. ‘wife’ + 3sg.m. possessive pronoun
  • bāb n gen.poss. construction ‘owner of’
  • tafunâst n.f.sg. ‘cow’
  • yugẹ́z-t pf.3sg.m. ‘he recognized’ + 3sg. direct object pronoun ‘it’

tenn-âs: šẹk dîma tsukâret dgī; imîra ezzarri‘āt ěddâ tlā bā tā adituâker?

She said to him: “You always accuse me of stealing; now do these seeds have something to be stolen?”

  •  tenn-âs pf.3sg.f. + 3sg. indirect object suffix. ‘she said to him’
  • šẹk 2sg. pronoun ‘you’
  • dîma adv. < dial. Ar. dīma ‘always’
  • tsukâret impf.2sg.m. of causative of uker ‘to steal’. The causative apparently has the meaning ‘to accuse of stealing’ rather than ‘to make steal’. A similar semantic development happened in Zuara Berber: yǝxnǝ́b ‘to steal’, causative ysǝ̣xnǝb ‘to accuse of theft’ [Marijn].
  • dg-ī ‘in’ 1sg. As in El-Fogaha, the imperfective direct object is marked with the particle dag-/deg-/dg- [Marijn].
  • imîra adv. ‘now’
  • ezzarri‘āt n. < Ar.f.pl. الزريعات ‘seeds’
  • ěddâ demonstrative adj., invariable in gender/number
  • tlā ‘to have’
  • bā tā ‘something’
  • adituâker aor.3sg.m.pass. ‘to be stolen’

wu tẻmmádda i-yillī-s tenn-âs: 

And she went to his/her daughter (and) she said to her:

  •  tẻmmádda pf.3sg.f. of mád ‘she went’
  • i-yillī-s ‘to his/her daughter’
  • tennâ-s impf.3sg.f. with 3sg.indir.obj.suff. ‘she said to her’

bâbā-m yěffâṭěn iyi-l-ḥabṭện n tuġwâu illî tuaréfnet sāl ězzarrî‘āt.

“Your father noticed the two grains of glîa which were roasted from the seeds.”

  • bâbā-m n. + -m kinship possessive ‘your father’
  • yěffâṭěn pf.3sg.m  ‘became aware, noticed’ (to judge from Sarnelli’s tr.), plus iyi– ‘of’
  • iyi-l-ḥabṭện prep + n. < dial. Ar. ḥǝbbtēn ‘two grains’
  • n tuġwâu Sarnelli translates this word as “glîa (vivanda composta di semi tritti nel grasso)”.
  • illî < dial. Ar. relative pronoun illī
  • tuaréf-net pf.3sg.f. passive ‘ with 3pl.f. direct object suffix. The passive form with an object is rather odd.
  • sāl ‘from’
  • ězzarrî‘āt ‘the seeds’ < dial. Ar. ez-zarī‘āt

těnnâ tmâẓiyět iyi-lálla-s: nīš ġûri, ām errâ‘î

The daughter said to her mother: “I, for me, as (is) the shepherd,”

  •  těnnâ pf.3sg.f. ‘she said’
  • tmâẓiyět n.f. ‘girl, daughter’ (Sarnelli gives tmîzět in glossary; I don’t understand the difference in form.)
  • iyi- directional particle marking indirect object
  • lálla-s n.f. ‘mother’ + 3sg. possessive suffix
  • nīš 1sg.pron. ‘I’
  • ġûri ‘for me’
  • ām ‘like, as’
  • errâ‘î n. < Ar. er-rā‘ī ‘the shepherd’

ām uggít ẖlâf; ílli ayittūġîm, bā**hi!

“as (is) someone else; whomever you marry me off to, fine!”

  •  ām ‘like, as’
  • uggít ‘someone
  • ẖlâf  ‘other’ < Ar. xilāf
  • ílli rel.pron. ‘(he) who’ < dial. Ar. rel.pron. illī اللي
  • ayittūġîm 1sg.DO-impf.2pl.m.:marry off + 1sg. direct object pronoun ‘me’
  • bāhi ‘fine, ok, good’ < dial. Ar. bāhī ‘id.’

wu temmádda tmẹ́zziyet i-ḥánnā-s, tẖâbr-as, těnnâ-s: ‘abân ayûgī-n errâ‘î.

And the girl went to her grandmother, informed her, and said to her: “They want the shepherd to take me (in marriage).”

  • temmádda 3sg.f.pf. of mád ‘she went’
  • tmẹ́zziyet n.f. ‘girl, daughter’ (why does this differ from above tmîzět ??)
  • i- dir.part. ‘to’
  • ḥánnā-s n.f. < dial. Ar. ḥennā حنى ‘grandmother’ + kinship suffix 3sg.
  • tẖâbr-as impf.3sg.f. ‘she informed, told’ < dial.Ar. (i)txābǝr ?? (one wouldn’t expect an Arabic form III here, but instead form II) + -as 3sg.indir.obj.suff.
  • těnnâ-s impf.3sg.f. + -(ā)s 3sg.indir.obj.suff. ‘she said to her’
  • ‘abân pf.3pl.m. ‘they want’
  • ayûgī-n aor.3sg. of stem ‘to carry away (in marriage)’, with -n ‘thither’ particle [Marijn].
  • errâ‘î Ar. الراعي ‘shepherd’

tennâ-s: mā ġā atgîm amekl-ínnuen tíüži de-ddâna assâ dě nīš izûmaẖ?

(The grandmother) said to her: “For what reason are you going to make your lunch with polenta and fat today, and I am fasting?”

  • mā ġā ‘what for, why’
  • atgîm aor.2pl. ‘why are you doing…’
  • amekl-ínnuen n. ‘lunch, food’ (< dial. Ar. mākla?) + 2pl.m.poss.suff. ‘your’
  • tíüži Not sure about this. Sarnelli translates ‘polenta’.
  • de-ddâna conj. ‘with’ + tadẹ́nt n.f. ‘fat’ (tadâna > tdâna > ddâna)
  • assâ ‘today’ (cf. Awjili ašfa ‘today’ with assim. šf > ss)
  • conj. ‘and’
  • nīš 1sg. pronoun ‘I’
  • izûmaẖ pf.1sg. ‘I am fasting’

bā tā elẖlâf eddâ?

“What difference is that?” [i.e. “What difference does that make?”]

  • bā tā interrogative ‘what?’
  • elẖlâf n. ‘difference’ < Ar. xilāf ‘id.’
  • eddâ demonstrative adjective, invariable ‘this’

ettaussā*rt tenn-âs awǎl ěddâ iyi-tsûġī.

The old woman said these words to the servant-girl.

  • ettaussārt n.f. ‘old woman’
  • tenn-âs pf.3sg.f. ‘she said’ + 3sg. indir.obj. pronoun ‘to her’
  • awǎl n. ‘word’
  • ěddâ demonstrative adj. ‘these’
  • iyi- directional particle ‘to’
  • tsûġī n. ‘servant’

těffọ́ġ tsûġǐ tzâġǎraṭ.

The servant-girl went out to ululate.

  • těffọ́ġ pf.3sg.f. ‘she went out’
  • tsûġǐ n.f. ‘servant-girl’
  • tzâġǎraṭ Arabic verb in the 3sg.f.impf. ‘she ululates’ < Ar. تزغرط . The sentence structure parallels dialectal Arabic, with intention expressed by a conjugated perfect verb ‘to go’ followed by a conjugated imperfect verb. In Berber though, one would expect an aorist/future [p.c. Marijn].

innân-ās: mâi ttufîd?

They said to her: “What have you found?”

  • innân-ās pf.3pl.m. + 3sg. indir.obj. pronoun
  • mâi  interrogative ‘what’
  • ttufîd pf.2sg.f. ‘you found’ (usual vowel change from â to î in 2sg.; different from Awjili which has â in the 2sg.)

tenn-âsen: ídbi ataqǎnâyed, tẖabběrâyed tawessā*rt-ēnnaẖ!

(The servant-girl) said to them: “My masters have freed me, our old woman informed me!”

  • tenn-âsen pf.3sg.f. with 3pl.m. indir.obj. pronoun
  • ídbi n.pl. ídb(ā)- ‘masters’ + -i ‘my’ [Lameen].
  • ataqǎn-âyed pf.3pl.m. ‘to free’ + 1sg. indir.obj. pronoun ‘me’
  • tẖabběr-âyed Arabic 3sg.f.impf. ‘she tells, informs’ + 1sg. indir.obj. pronoun ‘me’
  • tawẹssārt-ēnnaẖ n.f.sg. ‘old woman’ + 1pl. possessive suffix

-A. Benkato

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Awjila Text IV

Yəškí Žḥá ssúq-i u ídd-əs aẓiəṭ-ə́nnəs iġə́lli a-ižiží-t.
‘Juha left for the market and with him (he took) his donkey that he wanted to sell’

  • Yəškí ‘to leave’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal Name
  • ssúq- Souq, market
  • -i locative particle
  • u ‘and’
  • ídd- ‘with’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • iġə́lli ‘to want’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-ižiží- ‘to sell’ fut.3sg.m. A lovely example of the ənC > iC shift, cf. common Berber z-ənz ‘to sell’
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

Bəʕədén yəfkí-t i-ddəllál dax a-ižiží-t.
‘Then he gave it to the auctioneer in order to sell it’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəfkí- ‘to give’ pf.3sg.m.
  • i- ‘to’
  • ddəllál ‘auctioneer’ cf. Ar. dallāl ‘id.’
  • dax ‘in order to’
  • a-ižiží- ‘to sell’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

Bəʕədén yəqqím əddəllál iʕəyáṭ w-itənn-ís: wáya d-aẓíṭ fəšúš, qə́wi u d-aẓíṭ mrí.
‘Then the auctioneer started to shout and said: “This is an agile and strong donkey and it is a good donkey!”

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary verb, always takes the imperfect
  • əddəllál ‘auctioneer’
  • iʕəyáṭ [1] ‘to yell, shout’ impf.3sg.m.
  • w- ‘and’
  • itənn- ‘to say’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun. This pronoun is obligatory, even if there is no obvious indirect object, as is the case here.
  • wáya ‘this’
  • d- Copula
  • aẓíṭ ‘donkey’, notice the difference in the second syllable compared to the first attestation of ‘donkey’ in this text. It is unclear why these two forms exist.
  • fəšúš ‘agile’ adj.m.sg.
  • qə́wi ‘strong’ adj.m.sg. cf.Ar. qawīy ‘id.’
  • u ‘and’
  • d- Copula
  • aẓíṭ ‘donkey’
  • mrí ‘beautiful’

Bəʕədén əqqimán míddən rənníyən fəllí-s s-ar žlan-íya.
‘Then the people started bidding on it from these words’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • əqqimán ‘to stay’ pf.3pl.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary
  • míddən ‘people’
  • rənníyən [2] ‘to bid’ impf.3pl.m.
  • fəllí- ‘on’
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • s-ar ‘from’
  • žlan- ‘words’
  • -íya plural proximal deixis suffix

Bəʕədén yəslá Žḥá žlan-íya w-in-ís y-imán-nəs: la-búdda aẓiəṭ-ənnúk kuwə́yəs ṣəḥíḥ.
‘Then Juha heard these words and he said to himself: “Surely my donkey is really healthy!”

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəslá ‘to hear’ pf.3sg.m.
  • Žḥá Personal Name
  • žlan- ‘words’
  • -íya plural proximal deixis suffix
  • w- ‘and’
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun.
  • y- ‘to’
  • imán- reflexive pronoun
  • -nəs 3sg. possessive suffix to go with the reflexive pronoun
  • la-búdda ‘certainly’ cf. Ar. lā budda ‘id.’
  • aẓiəṭ- ‘donkey’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive pronoun
  • kuwə́yəs ‘very’, usually seems to mean ‘good’ but in this case to be taken as modifying the following adjective cf. Ar. kuwayyis ‘nice, fine, pretty, comely, handsome, beautiful’
  • ṣəḥíḥ ‘healthy’ cf. Ar. ṣaḥīḥ ‘healthy, well, sound, healthful, truthful’

Baʕadên yəqqím irə́nni id míddən.
‘Then he started to bid with the people’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary verb, always takes the imperfec
  • irə́nni ‘to bid’ pf.3sg.m.
  • id ‘with’
  • míddən ‘people’

Bəʕədén yəškí əlbarát u yəfkí-tənət y-əddəllál u yuġá aẓíəṭ u yəʕə́dd yəfríḥa.
‘Then he returned the money and gave it to the Auctioneer and took the donkey and went (away) satisfied.’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəškí ‘to leave  (s.th.)’ pf.3sg.m., the verb is used transitively hear and should be understood as ‘to pay back’
  • əlbarát ‘money’ cf. Dial. Ar. barāt ‘money’ a loanword from Turkish Para, an old Turkish currency. (p.c. Souag)
  • u ‘and’
  • y- ‘to’
  • əddəllál ‘auctioneer’
  • u ‘and’
  • yuġá ‘to take’ pf.3sg.m.
  • aẓíəṭ ‘donkey’
  • u ‘and’
  • yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yəfríḥa ‘to be satisfied’ res.3sg.m.

Bəʕədén əlʕəqqáb-i yəqqím nəttín id-dməgní-s u yəḥk-ís af ləḥkáyət n-arənní.
‘Then in the evening, he was with his wife and he told her the story of the auction.’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • əlʕəqqáb- ‘evening’, must be somehow derived from Ar. ʕaqb ‘after’
  • -i locative particle
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m.
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • id- ‘with’
  • dməgní-s ‘his wife’ with kinship possessive pronoun [3]
  • u ‘and’
  • yəḥk- ‘to tell about (+af)’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. ḥakā ‘to tell’
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • af ‘on’
  • ləḥkáyət ‘story’ cf. Ar. ḥikāya(t) ‘story, tale’
  • n- ‘of’
  • arənní ‘bidding, auction’ [4] verbal noun of the verb ərní ‘to bid, increase’

Tn-ís ənnát: “qáma a-nná-k ləḥkáyət axír n-tánnək.”
‘She said to him: “Now I will tell you a story (even) better than yours”

  • Tn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ənnát ‘she’
  • qáma ‘now’
  • a-nná- ‘to say’ fut.1sg.
  • -k 2sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • ləḥkáyət ‘story’
  • axír ‘better’ cf. Ar. xayr ‘better’
  • n- ‘of’ to be read as ‘than’ in comparisons like these
  • tá-nnək ‘that one of yours (m.sg.)’

Tn-ís: “yəxə́ṭṭam síla wa žižán ləmluxə́yət, yəqqím itazə́n-dík bəʕədén gíx əddə́mləž n əddə́həb əlkə́ffət ta-gán əlmizán;”
‘She said to him: “a Mulukhiyah merchant came by here and he started weighing for me, then I put my golden bracelet in the plate which was put on the scales”

  • Tn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • yəxə́ṭṭam ‘to meet, visit’
  • síla ‘here’
  • wa relative pronoun m.sg.
  • žižán ‘to sell’ ptc., together with the previous word ‘one who sells’, thus ‘merchant’
  • ləmluxə́yət ‘Mulukhiyah’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m. used as an inchoative auxiliary
  • itazə́n- ‘to weigh’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -dík 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • gíx ‘to put’ pf.1sg.
  • əddə́mləž ‘bracelet’
  • n ‘of’
  • əddə́həb ‘gold’
  • əlkə́ffət ‘plate’
  • ta- f.sg. relative pronoun
  • gán ‘there is, there are’, this construction is unique in the text, gán seems to behave as a verbal participle in a relative sentence. Clearly the meaning of the text is ‘The plate that is on the scales’. The fact that it functionally behaves as a verbal participle here, might be an indication that this particle was originally a participle of the verb ag ‘to do; to put’
  • əlmizán ‘scales’

“bəʕədén yəkkə́mməl uzún-nəs, ənṭə́rx əddəmləž-ənnúk əlmizán-i rwíḥḥa a-ini-dík: kəm ttákərt s-ġár-i.”
“When he finished his weighing, I left my bracelet on the scales, I was afraid that he would say to me: You are stealing from me!”

  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəkkə́mməl ‘to finish’ pf.3sg.m.
  • uzún- ‘weighing’ verbal noun of itazə́n- ‘to weigh’ impf.3sg.m., imperative (usually the citation form) is unkown.
  • ənṭə́rx ‘to leave’ pf.1sg.
  • əddəmləž- ‘bracelet’
  • -ənnúk 1sg. possessive pronoun
  • əlmizán- ‘scales’
  • -i locative particle
  • rwíḥḥa ‘to be afraid’ res.1sg. cf. Ar. rāʕa ‘to fright, scare, alarm’, assimilation of ʕḫ > ḥḥ.
  • a-ini- ‘to say’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -dík 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • kəm ‘you (f.sg.)’
  • ttákərt ‘to steal’ impf.2sg.
  • s-ġár- ‘from’
  • -i 1sg. prepositional pronoun

Bəʕədén in-ís Žḥá: “báhi, nək šuġárx s-əlhəwáyyi u kəm s-ar-əzgíg u tudík a-ttəʕmír təfilli-nnáx.”
‘Then Juha said to her: “very well, I have lost something outside (of the house) and you (have lost something) on the inside (of the house) and thus our house will prosper!”

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • Žḥá Personal Pronoun
  • báhi ‘good’, used adverbially
  • šuġárx ‘to lose s.th.’ pf.1sg.
  • s- ‘from’
  • əlhəwáyyi ‘outside’
  • u ‘and’
  • kəm ‘you (f.sg.)’
  • s-ar- ‘from’, notice how in very quick succession three different forms of from are used. s-ġár-, s- and s-ar-. In front of pronouns s-ġár- seems to be the only form, but in other contexts the conditioning has not been clearly established.
  • əzgíg ‘inside’
  • u ‘and’
  • tudík ‘so’
  • a-ttəʕmír ‘to prosper’ fut.3sg.f., this verb is used ironically, because, rather than prosper Juha and his wife have become poorer.
  • təfilli- ‘house’
  • -nnáx 1pl. possessive pronoun

M. van Putten

Notes:

[1] Also: iʕəyyáṭ
[2] Also: rənnán
[3] Paradisi mention this word also exists with the usual possessive pronoun təmigní-nnəs
[4] Also: arə́nnu

Awjila Text III

Gan iwínan, yərfiʕa af təgilí-nnəs əlḥə́ml ẓẓák s-ġár ləmluxíyət
‘There once was a (man), he carried a heavy load of mulukhiyah on his head.’

  • Gan ‘there is/are’
  • iwínan ‘one (person, man)’
  • yərfiʕa ‘to carry’ res.3sg.m.
  • af ‘on’
  • təgilí- ‘head’
  • -nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • əlḥə́ml ‘load’
  • ẓẓák ‘heavy’ adj.m.sg.
  • s-ġár ‘from’
  • ləmluxíyət ‘mulukhiyah’

w- ižigáž dzənqín-i n ašál u nəttín iʕayáṭ w- itənn-ís: “ləmluxíyət báhəyət!”
‘And he always walked in the street of the village and he would yell: “Good mulukhiyah!”

  • w- ‘and’
  • ižigáž  ‘to walk’ impf.3sg.m.
  • dzənqín- ‘streets’, nativized Arabic loanword of dial. Ar. zanqa(t) ‘street’ (sg. tzənəqt ‘street’ )
  • -i locative particle
  • n ‘of’
  • ašál ‘village’
  • u ‘and’
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • iʕayáṭ ‘to yell’ impf.3sg.m. [1] cf. Ar. ʕāṭa ‘to yell, scream’
  • w- ‘and’
  • itənn- ‘to say’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun, an obligatory pronoun for the verb ‘to say’, even if there is no indirect object, as is the case in this sentence.
  • ləmluxíyət ‘mulukhiyah’
  • báhəyət ‘good’ adj.f.sg. cf. dial. Ar. bāhi ‘good, ok, fine’. This adjective is the only evidence that Arabic adjective agree in gender in the same way as native Aujila words.

W- ižigáž ggút išfíwan u ižíž lúda
‘And he was walking for many days and sold nothing’

  • W- ‘and’
  • ižigáž ‘to walk’ impf.3sg.m.
  • ggút ‘many’
  • išfíwan ‘days’
  • u ‘and’
  • ižíž ‘to sell’ pf.3sg.m,
  • lúda ‘nothing’

u tafút təḥmáya fəllí-s u təqqím təttá afiš-ə́nnəs id əlgəfá-nnəs u təqqím am əžžəḥím fəllí-s
‘And the sun burned on him and started to eat at his face and back of his head and stayed like hell upon him’

  • u ‘and’
  • tafút ‘sun’
  • təḥmáya ‘to burn, scorch’ res.3sg.f.
  • fəllí- ‘on’
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • u ‘and’
  • təqqím pf.3sg.f. ‘to stay’, used as an inchoative auxiliary.
  • təttá ‘to eat’ impf.3sg.f. One would expect the form təttá, this sequence was apparently considered tedious
  • afiš- ‘face’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possesive pronoun
  • id ‘with, and’
  • əlgəfá- ‘back of the head’
  • -nnəs 3sg. possesive pronoun
  • u ‘and’
  • təqqím pf.3sg.f. ‘to stay’
  • am ‘like’
  • əžžəḥím ‘hell’ cf. Ar. žaḥīm ‘fire, hellfire, hell’
  • fəllí- ‘on’
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun

u nəttín lləkká ižigáž u iʕayáṭ: əlmluxíyət báhəyət!
‘and he was still walking and yelling: “Good Mulukhiyah!

  • u ‘and’
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • lləkká ‘still’
  • ižigáž ‘to walk’ impf.3sg.m.
  • u ‘and’
  • iʕayáṭ ‘to yell’ impf.3sg.m.
  • əlmluxíyət ‘Mulukhiyah’
  • báhəyət ‘good’ adj.f.sg.

U təxzə́r ġár-əs təmígni w- ətn-ís: i-kí a- wá-n ləmluxíyət”
‘And a woman saw him and said to him: “Hey you! The one with the Mulukhiyah!”

  • u ‘and’
  • təxzə́r ‘to see’ pf.3sg.f., this verb uses the preposition ġár- ‘at’ to mark the direct object.
  • ġár- ‘at’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • təmígni ‘woman’
  • w- ‘and’
  • ətn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.f.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • i- ‘hey you!’ The exact analysis of this word is unclear.
  • a-‘O!’ vocative particle
  • wá- m.sg. deictic pronoun, combined with n creates a possesive pronoun ‘he of the …’
  • n‘of’
  • ləmluxíyət ‘Mulukhiyah’

U yəxzə́r nəttín ġár-əs w- igá əlḥəməl-ə́nnəs dít n təmígni u tənšə́d-t: “z-díwa?”
‘And he saw her and put his load in front of the woman and she asked him: “How much?”

  • U ‘and’
  • yəxzə́r ‘to see’ pf.3sg.m.
  • nəttín ‘he’
  • ġár- ‘at’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • w- ‘and’
  • igá ‘to do’ pf.3sg.m.
  • əlḥəməl- ‘load’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possesive pronoun
  • dít n ‘in front of’
  • təmígni ‘woman’
  • u ‘and’
  • tənšə́d- ‘to ask’ pf.3sg.m. cf. ELA yinšed ‘to ask’
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • z-díwa? ‘how much?’

In-ís: “ssə́bəʕa n millím.”
He said: seven milliemes

  • In- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ssə́bəʕa ‘seven’, cf. Ar. sabʕa(t) ‘id.’
  • n ‘of’
  • millím ‘millieme’

Tn-ís ənnát: “s-árbəʕa bə́ss.”
‘She said: “(I’ll buy it for) only four”

  • Tn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.f.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ənnát ‘she’
  • s- ‘with’
  • árbəʕa ‘four’, cf. Ar. ʔarbaʕa(t) ‘id.’
  • bə́ss ‘only’ ELA bəss ‘just, only’

In-ís: “árbəʕa ḥə́nṭa.”
‘He said: “four is (too) little”

  • In- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • árbəʕa ‘four’
  • ḥə́nṭa ‘a bit’ cf. Ar. ḥinṭa(t) ‘kind of hard wheat’, the semantic shift is comparable to ḥəbba in Siwi (‘grain’ > ‘a little’) (p.c. Souag)

Tn-ís: “nək ná-k-a s-árbəʕa n millím, yəʕžəb-kú-ya naġ yəʕžəb-kú-ya-ká?”
She said: I have told you four milliemes, does it please you or does it not please you?

  • Tn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.f.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • nək ‘I’
  • ná-…-a ‘to say’ res.1sg.
  • -k- 2sg.m. indirect object pronoun
  • s- ‘with’
  • árbəʕa ‘four’
  • n ‘of’
  • millím ‘millieme’
  • yəʕžəb-…-ya ‘to please’ res.3sg.m. cf.Ar. ʔaʕžaba ‘to please’
  • -kú- 2sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • naġ ‘or’
  • yəʕžəb-…-ya- ‘to please’ res.3sg.m.
  • -kú- 2sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • -ká negative particle

In-ís: “yəʕžəb-í-ya-ká.”
‘He said: “It does not please me”

  • In- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • yəʕžəb-…-ya ‘to please’ res.3sg.m.
  • -í- 1sg. direct object pronoun
  • -ká negative particle

Tn-ís: “blaš, u təqqə́š əlbáb fəllí-s”
‘She said: “Too bad! and she closed the door on him”

  • Tn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.f.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • blaš ‘Too bad!’, This word is probably derived from LA blaš ‘free’, the semantic development is unclear to me.
  • u ‘and’
  • təqqə́š ‘to close’ pf.3sg.f.
  • əlbáb ‘door’ cf. Ar. bāb ‘door’
  • fəllí- ‘on’
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun

u bəʕədén yəxzə́r af əlḥəməl-ə́nnəs wa-ẓẓákən dax a-yərfə́ʕ-t lákən yəkrí yə́vdəd
‘and afterwards he looked at his load that was (too) heavy to carry, and he returned and stopped.’

  • u ‘and’
  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəxzə́r ‘to look at’
  • af ‘on’, xzə́r in the meaning ‘to look at’ marks the object with this preposition.
  • əlḥəməl- ‘load’
  • -ə́nnəs  3sg. possessive pronoun
  • wa- m.sg. relative pronoun
  • ẓẓákən ‘to be heavy’ stative verb ptc.
  • dax ‘in order to’
  • a-yərfə́ʕ- ‘to carry’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • lákən ‘but’, in the translation, the meaning ‘but’ does not work very well, but is apparently used to indicate that the seller changes his mind and goes back anyway.
  • yəkrí ‘to return’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yə́vdəd ‘to stop’ pf.3sg.m.

u bəʕədén yəmmúdd afus-ə́nnəs yəddúgg af əlbáb
‘And then he extended his hand and knocked on the door’

  • u ‘and’
  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yəmmúdd ‘to extend’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. madda ‘to extend’
  • afus- ‘hand’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • yəddúgg ‘to knock’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. daqqa ‘to knock, rap, bang (on the door)’
  • af ‘on’
  • əlbáb ‘door’

u təškí təmígni ġár-əs w-ətn-ís: “amúr džižít s-alúwəl axér-lək-ká?”
‘And the woman came out to him and said to him: “If you had sold (to me) earlier, would it not have been better for you?”

  • u ‘and’
  • təškí ‘come out’ pf.3sg.f.
  • təmígni ‘woman’
  • ġár- ‘at, to’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • w- ‘and’
  • ətn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.f.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • amúr ‘if’
  • džižít ‘to sell’ pf.2sg.
  • s-alúwəl ‘earlier’ cf. Ar. (a)l-ʔawwal ‘earlier, previous, former’
  • axér ‘better’ cf. Ar. ḫayr ‘better’
  • lək ‘to you’, Arabic code switch
  • negative particle

Yəkri-ká fəllí-s žlán u bəʕədén yərfəʕ əlmizán-nəs wa yəḥməl-tí-ya u yəxbə́ṭ-ṭ af təgíli n təmígni
‘He did not answer a word to her, and then he lifted his scaled which he was carrying and hit it on the head of the woman’

  • Yəkri- ‘to answer’, combines with the preposition af ‘on’
  • -ká negative particle
  • fəllí- ‘on’
  • -s 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • žlán ‘words, speech’
  • u ‘and’
  • bəʕədén ‘afterwards’
  • yərfəʕ ‘to lift up’ pf.3sg.m.
  • əlmizán- ‘scales’ cf. Ar. mīzān ‘balances, scales’
  • -nəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • wa m.sg. relative pronoun
  • yəḥməl-…-ya ‘to carry’ res.3sg.m. cf. Ar. ḥamala ‘to carry, bear’
  • -tí- 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • u ‘and’
  • yəxbə́ṭ- ‘to smash’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. xabaṭa ‘to beat, strike’
  • -ṭ 3sg.m. direct object pronoun, the -t assimilated to a emphatic due to the preceding consonant.
  • af ‘on’
  • təgíli ‘head’
  • n ‘of’
  • təmígni ‘woman’

u tíva təmígni təmmút
and the woman fell and died

  • u ‘and’
  • tíva ‘to fall’ pf.3sg.f.
  • təmígni ‘woman’
  • təmmút ‘to die’ pf.3sg.f.

u yəqqím yəvdída agur-ə́nnəs ir a-yúš əl-bulís.
‘And he stayed and stood besides her until the police would come.’

  • u ‘and’
  • yəqqím ‘to remain’
  • yəvdída ‘to stand, to stop’ res.3sg.m.
  • agur- ‘side’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • ir ‘until’
  • a-yúš ‘to come’ fut.3sg.m.
  • əl-bulís ‘police’

Notes:

[1] Spellings in other texts suggest a reading iʕayyáṭ, it is likely that both forms exist in free variation.