El-Fogaha Text II

Yusə́d žḥa n-əlġə́rb yə-žḥá n-əššə́rəq

‘Juha of the west came to Juha of the east.’

  • Yusə́d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m.
  • žḥa Personal name. But here it seems to rather refer to a type of story-persona, rather than the historical Juha as in the previous story.
  • n- ‘of’
  • əlġə́rb ‘the west’ cf. Ar. ġarb ‘id.’
  • yə- Indirect object and directional marker
  • žḥa Personal name.
  • n- ‘of’
  • əššə́rəq ‘the east’ cf. Ar. šarq ‘id.’

Tláqu.

‘They met with each other’

  • Tláqu Code switch to Arabic. pf.3pl.m. of lāqa ‘to meet’ with reciprocal t-

Yənn-ás: yə́lla a-núkər

‘The one (of the west) said to him (of the east): Let’s go steal!

  • Yənn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • yə́lla ‘let’s go!’ cf. dial. Ar. yə́lla ‘id.’
  • a-núkər ‘to steal’ fut.1pl.

Yənn-ás: ə́sk əlmətʕat-ə́nnak arə́n.

‘The one (of the east) said to him (of the west): Put flour among your things

  • Yənn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ə́sk ‘to put’ imp.sg. A verb that takes a double accusative, apparently the second accusative gets put in the noun phrase of the first accusative.
  • əlmətʕat- ‘things’ cf. Ar. matāʕ pl. amtiʕa ‘id.’
  • -ə́nnak 2sg.m. possessive pronoun
  • arə́n ‘flour’

Wa n-əlġə́rb yəská arə́n d yəská ss-addáyy-ə́nnas tnifə́st.

‘The one of the west put the flour (away) and put it underneath ashes.’

  • Wa m.sg. deictic pronoun
  • n- ‘of’
  • əlġə́rb ‘the west’
  • yəská ‘to put’ pf.3sg.m.
  • arə́n ‘flour’
  • d ‘and’
  • yəská ‘to put’ pf.3sg.m.
  • ss-addáyy- ‘below, underneath’
  • -ə́nnas 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • tnifə́st ‘ash’

Wa n-əššə́rəq yəská téni d yəská s-addáyy-ə́nnas tískin.

‘The one of the east put the dates (away) and put it underneath excrement.’

  • Wa m.sg. deictic pronoun
  • n- ‘of’
  • əššə́rəq ‘the east’
  • yəská ‘to put’ pf.3sg.m.
  • téni ‘dates (coll.)’
  • d ‘and’
  • yəská ‘to put’ pf.3sg.m.
  • s-addáyy- ‘below, underneath’
  • -ə́nnas 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • tískin ‘excrement’

D uġárən, yusə́d əlwə́qt ən-mə́nsi.

‘And they went, The time of dinner arrived.’

  • d ‘and’
  • uġárən ‘to go’ pf.3pl.m.
  • yusə́d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m.
  • əlwə́qt ‘time’, this word is masculine in Arabic, but in many Berber languages it is reinterpreted as a feminine noun due to the final -t. This is not the case in El-Fogaha.
  • ən- ‘of’
  • mə́nsi ‘dinner’

Wa n-əlġə́rb yənná yə-žḥá n-əššə́rq: áš-id əlmətʕát-ənnak, a-nəmə́nsu.

‘The one from the west said to Juha of the east: Give me your stuff, let’s have dinner!

  • Wa m.sg. deictic pronoun
  • n- ‘of’
  • əlġə́rb ‘the west’
  • yənná ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yə- Indirect object and directional marker
  • žḥa Personal name.
  • n- ‘of’
  • əššə́rəq ‘the east’
  • áš- ‘to give’ imp.sg.
  • -id 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • əlmətʕát- ‘things’
  • -ə́nnak 2sg.m. possessive pronoun
  • a-nəmə́nsu ‘to have dinner’ fut.1pl.

Wa n-əššə́rq yənn-ás ḥə́tta nə́tta: ášid əlmətʕat-ə́nnak.

‘The one of the east said to him (the one of the west) too: Give me your things.

  • Wa m.sg. deictic pronoun
  • n- ‘of’
  • əššə́rq ‘the east’
  • yənn- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m
  • -ás 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ḥə́tta ‘also’
  • nə́tta ‘he’
  • áš- ‘to give’ imp.sg.
  • -id 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • əlmətʕát- ‘things’
  • -ə́nnak 2sg.m. possessive pronoun

Yuš-ás-tət, yəssə́kma afus-ə́nnas ġəs a-yə́kkʸ.

‘He gave it to him, He thrust his hand in order to eat.’

  • Yuš- ‘to give’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ás 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • -tət 3sg.f. direct object pronoun
  • yəssə́kma pf.3sg.m. ‘to insert, to thrust in’
  • afus- ‘hand’
  • -ə́nnas 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • ġəs ‘to want to’, used as an Auxiliary verb, this verb generally does not take PNG (Person Number Gender) marking, as is the case here. While Paradisi does not list another meaning than ‘to want to’ for this Auxiliary, in translation this verb is more comfortably translated as ‘in order to’ or ‘because he wanted to’.
  • a-yə́kkʸ ‘to eat’ fut.3sg.m.

Tusə́d afus-ə́nnas dag tnífəst;

‘His hand arrived in the ash’

  • Tusə́d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.f., for some reason the word afus-, which morphologically looks like a masculine noun, takes feminine subject agreement. Must be a calque on Arabic yad ‘hand’ which is also feminine, despite having no morphological indication that it is feminine. (p.c. Souag)
  • afus- ‘hand’
  • -ə́nnas 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • dag ‘in’
  • tnifə́st ‘ash’

d n-əlġə́rb yəssə́kma afus-ə́nnas ġəs ayə́kkʸ,

‘And (the one) of the west thrust his hand in order to eat’

  • d ‘and’
  • n- ‘of’
  • əlġə́rb ‘the west’
  • afus- ‘hand’
  • -ə́nnas 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • ġəs ‘to want to’ auxiliary pf.3sg.m.
  • a-yə́kkʸ ‘to eat’ fut.3sg.m.

tusə́d dag tískin.

‘His hand arrived in the excrement.’

  • Tusə́d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.f.
  • dag ‘in’
  • tískin ‘excrement’

Bə́ʕəd əkkán uġárən d ukárən agmár n-əṣṣəlṭán.

‘After they ate, they went and stole the horse of the Sultan’

  • Bə́ʕəd ‘after’ cf. Ar. baʕda  ‘id.’
  • əkkán ‘to eat’ pf.3pl.m.
  • uġárən ‘to go’ pf.3pl.m.
  • d ‘and’
  • ukárən ‘to steal’ pf.3pl.m.
  • agmár ‘horse’
  • n- ‘of’
  • əṣṣəlṭán ‘Sultan’

Wáyyən-t d ġrəsə́n-t.

‘They took it and they slaughtered it’

  • Wáyyən- ‘to take along’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • d ‘and’
  • ġrəsə́n- ‘to slaughter’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

Man ġrə́sən-t izínan-t s-zgə́n.

‘When they slaughtered it, they divided it in half’

  • Man ‘when; where’
  • ġrə́sən- ‘to slaughter’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • izínan- ‘to divide’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • s-zgə́n litt. ‘with half’

ə́lli wa yuġá əlḥəqq-ánnəs d yuġə́r y-imeddə́n-nas.

‘Each one took his share and went to his people’

  • ə́lli Usually the relative pronoun, but in this case the ə́lli wa construction seems to translate as ‘each one’
  • wa m.sg. deictic pronoun
  • yuġá ‘to take’ pf.3sg.m.
  • əlḥəqq- ‘one’s due, share’ cf. Ar. ḥaqq ‘truth; one’s due’
  • -ánnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun. Odd vocalism, should perhaps be read as -ə́nnəs with a colored ə́ under influence of the final q, this would imply that the form that we usually find -ə́nnas written by Paradisi as -énnas should be interpreted as phonemic /-ə́nnəs/, which, etymologically is preferable.
  • d ‘and’
  • yuġə́r ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • y- ‘to’
  • imeddə́n ‘people’
  • -nas 3sg. possessive pronoun

Yəská úmmi isúggar dag žžurrat-ə́nsən lə́l yufá man ġrə́sən-t.

‘(The Sultan) made someone search their tracks until he found where they slaughtered it.’

  • Yəská ‘to make, put’ pf.3sg.m. Seems to be used to create a periphrastic causative, maybe not grammaticalised. One could read it as ‘The sultan put/set someone to search…’
  • úmmi ‘who’ to be read as ‘someone’.
  • isúggar ‘to search’ impf.3sg.m.
  • dag ‘in’, marker of direct object of an imperfect verb.
  • žžurrat- ‘tracks’ cf. Ar. žurrāt ‘tracks’
  • -ə́nsən 3pl.m. possessive pronoun
  • lél ‘until’
  • yufá ‘to find’ pf.3sg.m.
  • man ‘when; where’
  • ġrə́sən- ‘to slaughter’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

Yuġə́r dag žžurrat-ə́nsən, iwə́ṭ-ṭən (< iwə́ḍ-tən) d yəṭṭə́f-tən d yəḥbə́s-tən.

‘He went in their tracks, he caught up with them and he seized them and imprisoned them’

  • Yuġə́r ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • dag ‘in’
  • žžurrat- ‘tracks’ cf. Ar. žurrāt ‘tracks’
  • -ə́nsən 3pl.m. possessive pronoun
  • iwə́ḍ ‘to join’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -tən 3pl.m. direct object pronoun
  • d ‘and’
  • yəṭṭə́f- ‘to seize’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -tən 3pl.m. direct object pronoun
  • d ‘and’
  • yəḥbə́s- ‘to imprison’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. ḥabasa ‘to shut off, confine’
  • -tən 3pl.m. direct object pronoun

Kull íggən iwáyyəd agmár y-əṣṣəlṭán d yəllə́f-tən.

‘Each one took a horse to the sultan and he let them go.’

  • Kull ‘Each, all, every’ cf. Ar. kull ‘id.’
  • íggən ‘one’
  • iwáyyəd ‘to take’ pf.3sg.m.
  • agmár ‘horse’
  • y- ‘to’
  • əṣṣəlṭán ‘Sultan’
  • d ‘and’
  • yəllə́f- ‘to set free’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -tən 3pl.m. direct object pronoun

M. van Putten

2 Responses to El-Fogaha Text II

  1. Lameen Souag says:

    If there ever was a historical Juha, he’s long since been forgotten, so stories like this are pretty common. In Algeria, we have stories where the French Juha meets the Arab Juha.

    I’m suspicious about tlaqu “they met” being a code-switch; why isn’t it tlagu with a g, as you would expect for a Libyan dialect? Could we be dealing with borrowed conjugated verbs here, à la Ghomara?

    afus taking feminine agreement must be copied from Arabic yad.

    “ġəs ‘to want to’, used as an Auxiliary verb, this verb generally does not take PNG (Person Number Gender) marking, as is the case here” – how odd. Any speculation on how that happened?

    • Marijn says:

      Could we be dealing with borrowed conjugated verbs here, à la Ghomara?

      Perhaps, there is one more verb like this. Paradisi mentions that the negative of ġəs is ma bá (m.) ma bát (f.). It sadly doesn’t mention if the form for the 1sg. also used the Arabic construction.

      But there is some reason to argue against a nativized conjugation and for a code-switch here. Paradisi has this entry for ‘to meet’:

      incontrare: lâqa (ar.). Essa incontrò un uomo, tlâqa amâr.

      Here the verb clearly takes Berber conjugation, not Arabic, and lacks the reciprocal t-. I don’t know how realistic it is to assume that the using the reciprocal t- prefix would make this verb to be conjugated as if it was Arabic. It would be great if more verbs like this showed up in the text.

      “ġəs ‘to want to’, used as an Auxiliary verb, this verb generally does not take PNG (Person Number Gender) marking, as is the case here” – how odd. Any speculation on how that happened?

      The best I can think of, is that it attempted to avoid the succession of the same PNG marking in a row, but I’m not particularly convinced by that explanation. So no.

      This is the entry for ‘to want’

      volere: perf. (con significato anche di presente) ġásåġ, tġásĕt, iġǻs, ġǻsan. Nella funzione di verbo serville si usa generalmente senza prefissi e sufissi verbali: vogliono entrare, ġås akę́męn; voglio dire ġås ánnåġ; vogliamo mangiare nġås anékk; non vuol bere, nk-iġás (nk-ġås) aísū; vogliono vendere il camello, ġås azzénzīn alġûm. Non volle, mā-bâ (ms.), mā-bât (femm.) (ar. dial.); non volle dar(gli) il denaro, mā-bâ ayûš imellâlęn; la madre non volle dirglielo un’altra volta, emmîs mā-bât atennâs márrat tayéḍ.

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