Awjila Text II

Gan iwínan n-amə́dən ašál n-awílən.

‘There was a man (in) the village of Aujila.’

  • Gan ‘there is, there are’, perhaps the ptc. of g ‘to do, to put’, functions the same as french il y a.
  • iwínan ‘one’
  • n- ‘of’
  •  amə́dən ‘man’
  • ašál ‘village’. It is fascinating how this sentence is clearly a locative phrase, but no preposition is needed. Gan is enough to provide that the second noun phrase signifies the place where the subject is.
  • n- ‘of’
  • awílən ‘Aujilans’, Plural of awíl ‘Aujilan, person from Aujila’

Márra yuġáya ksúm u yušá-d yəxṭíma af ammúd n sídi Ḥáməd əz-Zarrúq.

‘One day he bought meat and he came and visited the mosque of Sidi Ahmed Zarruq.’

  • Márra ‘once’ cf. Ar. marra ‘id.’
  • yuġáya ‘to buy’ res.3sg.m.
  • ksúm ‘meat’
  • u ‘and’
  • yušá-d ‘to come’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yəxṭíma ‘to visit’ res.3sg.m. cf. LA īxaṭṭǝm ʕalā ‘to pick someone up, to drop by someone’. Calqued from Libyan Arabic, this verb marks its object with the preposition af ‘on’
  • af ‘on’
  • ammúd ‘mosque’
  • n ‘of’
  • sídi Ḥáməd əz-Zarrúq Personal Name.

Yufí-tən ʕə́mma mudán lʕə́ṣər;

‘He found them praying the afternoon prayer.’

  • Yufí ‘to find’ pf.3sg.m.pf.
  • -tən 3pl.m. direct object clitic.
  • ʕə́mma particle that expresses the progressive aspect. cf. Ar. ʕaml which has the same function in dialectal Arabic.
  • mudán ‘to pray’ pf./impf.3pl.m.; ʕə́mma usually takes the imperfect. The imperfect of this verb is unattested, and may not exist. Therefore it defaults to pf. or a pf.-impf.
  • lʕə́ṣər ‘afternoon prayer’, cf. Ar. ʕaṣr ‘afternoon (prayer)’

yúna ammúd-i w-ídd-əs ksúm.

‘He entered the mosque and (entered) with his meat.’

  • yúna ‘to enter’ pf.3sg.m.
  • ammúd- ‘mosque’
  • -i locative particle, ‘towards, into’
  • w- ‘and’
  • ídd- ‘with’
  • -əs 3sg. post-prepositional suffix
  • ksúm ‘meat’

Iggí-t dít-a w-alimám sídi Ḥáməd əz-Zarrúq.

‘And he put it (the meat) in front of him, and the Imam was Sidi Ahmed Zarruq’

  • Iggí– ‘to do, place’ 3sg.m.pf.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object clitic
  • dít- ‘in front of’
  • -a 3sg.m. post-prepositional suffix, surprisingly of Arabic origin, while the preposition itself is Berber.
  • w- ‘and’
  • alimám [1] ‘imam’

u bəʕə́d ikkə́mməl yəʕə́dd irrə́wwəḥ u šummán ksúm wa yərfíʕa;

‘And after he finished he went home and they cooked the meat that he had brought’

  • u ‘and’
  • bəʕə́d ‘after’ cf. Ar. baʕda ‘after’
  • ikkə́mməl ‘to finish’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. kammala ‘id.’
  • yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m. cf. ELA ʕadd ‘to go’
  • irrə́wwəḥ ‘to return home’ pf.3sg.m. cf. ELA īrowwǝḥ ‘to return (home)’
  • u ‘and’
  • šummán ‘to cook’ pf.3pl.m., curious change of subject referring to the family.
  • ksúm ‘meat’
  • wa m.sg. relative pronoun
  • yərfíʕa res.3sg.m.

ʕəla-má fəkkan-ís afíw yəlġə́m a-yə́mm.

‘as much fire they would give it, it refused to cook.’

  • ʕəla-má ‘as much as’ cf. Dial. Ar. ʕala-ma ‘id.’
  • fəkkan- ‘to give’ impf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. Indirect Object pronoun
  • afíw ‘fire’
  • yəlġə́m ‘to refuse’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-yə́mm ‘to cook (intr.)’ fut.3sg.m.

Bəʕədén yəʕə́dd yə́nšəd ərrəfəqá-nnəs wi ižinána nəttín id-sín ksúm.

‘Afterwards he went and asked his companions who, he and them, had shared the meat.’

  • Bəʕədén ‘afterwards’ cf. Ar. baʕda an ‘after’
  • yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yə́nšəd ‘to ask’ pf.3sg.m. cf. ELA yinšed ‘to ask’
  • ərrəfəqá- ‘companions’ [2] cf. Ar. rafīq pl. rufaqāʔ ‘id.’
  • -nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • wi pl.m. relative pronoun
  • ižinána ‘to divide’ res.3pl.m.
  • nəttín ‘he’, independent pronoun.
  • id- ‘with’
  • -sín Prepositional 3pl.m. pronoun.
  • ksúm ‘meat’

Nan-ís: “nəkkəní nəšummi-tíy-a u nči-tíy-a.”

‘They said to him: “We cooked it, and we’ve eaten it.”

  • Nan ‘to say’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • nəkkəní ‘we’
  • nəšummi-…-a ‘to cook (trans.)’ res.1pl.
  • -tíy- 3sg.m. direct object pronoun (Simply t- when not followed by the resultative suffix -a)
  • u ‘and’
  • nči-…-a ‘to eat’ res.1pl.
  • -tíy- 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

In-isín: “nək ʕəla-má fə́kká-s afíw yəlġə́m a-yə́mm.”

‘He said to them: “As much as I would give fire to it, it refused to cook.”

  • In- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -isín 3pl.m. indirect object pronoun.
  • nək ‘I’ independent pronoun
  • ʕəla-má ‘as much as’
  • fə́kká- ‘to give’ impf.1sg.
  • -(i)s 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • afíw ‘fire’
  • yəlġə́m ‘to refuse’ pf.3sg.m.
  • a-yə́mm ‘to cook (intr.)’ fut.3sg.m.

Nan-ís: “ddíwa dgíta?”

‘They said to him: “What did you do?”

  • Nan ‘to say’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ddíwa ‘what’
  • dgíta ‘to do’ res.2sg.

Ini-sín: “bəʕə́d ušíġ-d uníx ammúd-i, ufíx-tən ʕə́mma mudán, gíx dít-i ksúm u qqəimíx mudíx, wén-ma kəmmə́lx ʕəddíx; wa d-əlá ṣarána.”

‘He said to them: “After I came and entered the mosque, I found them praying, I put the meat in front of me and started praying, when I finished I went; that is what happened.”

  • In- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -isín 3pl.m. indirect object pronoun.
  • bəʕə́d ‘after’
  • ušíġ-d ‘to come’ pf.1sg.
  • uníx ‘to enter’ pf.1sg.
  • ammúd- ‘mosque’
  • -i locative suffix
  • ufíx- ‘to find’ pf.1sg.
  • -tən 3pl.m. direct object pronoun
  • ʕə́mma particle of progressive aspect
  • mudán ‘to pray’ pf.3pl.m.
  • gíx ‘to do, put’ pf.1sg.
  • dít- ‘in front of’
  • -i 1sg. prepositional pronoun
  • ksúm ‘meat’
  • u ‘and’
  • qqəimíx ‘to stay’ pf.1sg., expresses the inchoative ‘to start to’, usually followed by a verb in the imperfect.
  • mudíx ‘to pray’ pf.1sg. surprisingly, we find a verb in the perfect rather than the imperfect. Perhaps this verb has no separate imperfect form.
  • wén-ma ‘as soon as’ cf. Dial Ar. wēn ‘where’ < Ar. wa-ʔayna ‘and where’
  • kəmmə́lx ‘to finish’ pf.1sg.
  • ʕəddíx ‘to go’ pf.1sg.
  • wa m.sg. deictic pronoun
  • d-əlá A construction that introduces a cleft sentence.
  • ṣarána ‘to happen’ res.ptc. cf.Ar. ṣāra ‘to become; to occur, happen’

Nan-ís ərrəfəqá-nnəs: “ʕə́dd an-ís-t i-sídi Ḥə́məd əz-Zarruq.”

‘His companions said to him: “Go  tell it to Sidi Ahmed Zarruq”

  • Nan ‘to say’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ərrəfəqá- ‘companions’
  • -nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • ʕə́dd ‘to go’ imp.sg.
  • an- ‘to say’ imp.sg.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • i- indirect object particle
  • sídi Ḥə́məd əz-Zarruq Personal name

Yəʕə́dd in-ís-t am-alá nan-ís-a.

‘He went and he told him like they had told him’

  • Yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • am-alá ‘like’
  • nan-…-a ‘to say’ res.3pl.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun

Wén-ma in-ís-t i-sídi Ḥə́məd əz-Zarrúq, in-ís: “nək lukán wa (or: wása) a-mmudán də́ffər-i a-iččí-t afíw, məʕə́dč a-mmudə́x s-ḥíddan.”

‘as soon as he said it to Ahmed Zarruq, he said to him: “As for me, if one who prays behind me is eaten by fire (litt. fire will eat him), I will no longer pray with anyone”

  • wén-ma ‘as soon as’ cf. Dial. Ar. weyn-ma ‘id.’
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • i- indirect object particle
  • sídi Ḥə́məd əz-Zarruq Personal name
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • nək ‘I’, placed in this sentence for extra emphasis.
  • lukán ‘if’ cf. Dellys Ar. lukan ‘if (hypothetical)’
  • wa, wása m.sg. relative pronoun. The extended form wása is only attested in this text. wása may be a relative pronoun with undetermined number and gender similar to Ghadamès was (Lanfry 1973: 394).
  • a-mmudán ‘pray’ fut.ptc.
  • də́ffər- ‘behind’
  • -i 1sg. prepositional pronoun
  • a-iččí- ‘to eat’ fut.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • afíw ‘fire’
  • məʕə́dč ‘no longer’ cf. dial. Ar. mā-ʕād-š ‘no more, no longer’
  • a-mmudə́x ‘to pray’ fut.1sg.
  • s- ‘with’
  • ḥíddan ‘anyone’ cf. Ar. ʔaad-an ‘id.’

In-ís: “ksum-áya ġár-ək ʕə́dd kəffə́n-t, u ʕə́dd mtí-t žəbbánət;”

‘He said to him: “This meat you have go and wrap it, and go burry it (in) the cemetery;”

  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ksum- ‘meat’
  • -áya ‘this’
  • ġár ‘at’
  • -ək 2sg.m. pronoun prepositional suffix
  • ʕə́dd ‘to go’ imp.sg.
  • kəffə́n- ‘to wrap’ imp.sg. cf. Ar. kaffana ‘to wrap s.th., to cover s.th.’
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • u ‘and’
  • ʕə́dd ‘to go’ imp.sg.
  • mtí- ‘to bury’ imp.sg.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • žəbbánət ‘cemetery’ cf. Ar. žabbāna(t) ‘cemetery’

yəʕə́dd yəmtí-t u yəqqím ixəbbár míddən.

‘He went and buried it and he started to tell the people.’

  • yəʕə́dd ‘to go’ pf.3sg.m.
  • yəmtí- ‘to bury’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • u ‘and’
  • yəqqím ‘to stay’ pf.3sg.m. used inchoatively.
  • ixəbbár  ‘to tell’ impf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. xabbara ‘to tell’
  • míddən ‘people’

Wén-ma slán-t míddən n ašál kúll, ušán-d ġəllíyən a-mmúdán kull də́ffər-a w-ammúd məššə́k iġəlli-ká a-yúġ míddən n ašál.

‘When all the people of the village heard it, they came and all wanted to pray behind him (Sidi Ahmed Zarruq) but (litt. and) the small mosque was too small for the people of the village (litt. did not want to take the people of the village)’

  • wén-ma ‘as soon as’
  • slán- ‘to hear’  pf.3pl.m.
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun
  • míddən ‘people’
  • n ‘of’
  • ašál ‘village’
  • kúll ‘all’
  • ušán-d ‘to come’ pf.3pl.m.
  • ġəllíyən ‘to want’ pf.3pl.m.
  • a-mmúdán ‘to pray’  fut.3pl.m.
  • kull ‘all’
  • də́ffər- ‘behind’
  • -a 3sg.m. prepositional pronoun, notice how this preposition takes the Arabic pronoun, and not the Berber pronoun -s, despite beind a preposition of Berber origin.
  • w- ‘and’
  • ammúd ‘mosque’
  • məššə́k ‘small’
  • iġəlli- ‘to want’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -ká negative particle
  • a-yúġ ‘to take’ fut.3sg.m.
  • míddən ‘people’
  • n ‘of’
  • ašál ‘village’

Yəxəmmə́m əlfəkr-ə́nnəs sídi Ḥáməd, illúff dbaš-ə́nnəs w-in-isín: “ġəllíx a-ʕəddáx fḥáli.”

‘Sidi Ahmed thought his thoughts, he gathered his stuff and he said to them: “I want to go by myself”

  • Yəxəmmə́m ‘to think’ pf.3sg.m.
  • əlfəkr- ‘thought’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • sídi Ḥáməd Personal name
  • illúff ‘to wrap up’ pf.3sg.m. cf. Ar. laffa ‘to wrap up’
  • dbaš- ‘stuff’ cf. Ar. dabaš pl. adbāš ‘junk, rubbish, trash’
  • -ə́nnəs 3sg. possessive pronoun
  • w- ‘and’
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -isín 3pl.m. indirect object pronoun
  • ġəllíx ‘to want’ pf.1sg.
  • a-ʕəddáx ‘to go’ fut.1sg.
  • fḥáli ‘by myself’ cf. Ar. fī ḥāl-ī ‘by myself’

Nan-ís ləhə́l n ašál: “a-nnəʕə́dd kull-ídd-ək.”

‘The people of the village said to him: “we will all go with you.”

  • Nan- ‘to say’ pf.3pl.m.
  • -ís 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • ləhə́l ‘people’ cf. Ar. ʔahl ‘relatives, folks, family; kin; people, members, followers etc.’
  • n ‘of’
  • ašál ‘village’
  • a-nnəʕə́dd ‘to go’ fut.1pl.
  • kull- ‘all’
  • ídd- ‘with’
  • -ək 2sg.m. prepositional pronoun

U škíyən ídd-əs ir a-hlə́bən ašál u bəʕədén in-isín: “ṣbərát a-nna-kím nək d-awíl tláta marrát íla yom əlqiyáma:”

‘And they left with him until they would leave the village and then he said to them: “Wait, I will tell you that I will be an Aujilan three times until the day of resurrection.”

  • u ‘and’
  • škíyən ‘to leave’ pf.3pl.m.
  • ídd- ‘with’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • ir ‘until’
  • a-hlə́bən ‘to reach the end’ fut.3pl.m.
  • ašál ‘village’
  • u ‘and’
  • bəʕədén ‘then’
  • in- ‘to say’ pf.3sg.m.
  • -isín 3pl.m. indirect object pronoun
  • ṣbərát ‘to wait’  imp.pl.m. cf. Ar. ṣabara ‘to bind, to be patient’
  • a-nna- ‘to say’ fut.1sg.
  • -(i)kím 2pl.m. indirect object pronoun
  • nək ‘I’
  • d- copula
  • awíl ‘Aujila, person from Aujila’
  • tláta ‘three’ cf. Ar. ṯalāṯa(t) ‘three’
  • marrát ‘time’ cf. Ar. marrāt ‘times, turns’
  • íla ‘until’ cf. Ar. ʔilā ‘until’
  • yom əlqiyáma ‘The day of resurrection’ cf. Ar. yawm al-qiyāma(t) ‘The day of resurrection’; The whole phrase tláta … əlqiyáma is a code-switch to Classical Arabic.

“wása a-nzurrán s-ġar-kím a-ʕəyyáṭən-dík təláta marrát; a-ušáz-d w-a-ffukkáx-t.”

“Those of you who are suffering , they will call me three times; I will come and I will resolve it.”

  • wása Relative pronoun undetermined for number and gender(?).
  • a-nzurrán ‘to suffer’ fut.ptc.
  • s-ġar- ‘from’
  • -kím 2pl.m. prepositional pronoun
  • a-ʕəyyáṭən- ‘to call’ fut.3pl.m.
  • -dík 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • təláta ‘three’
  • marrát ‘time’
  • a-ušá-…-d ‘to come’ fut.1sg.
  • -(i)z- 3sg. indirect object pronoun
  • w- ‘and’
  • a-ffukkáx- ‘to untie; to solve’ cf. Ar. fakka ‘to separate, disjoin, disconnect, sever, sunder’
  • -t 3sg.m. direct object pronoun

“Undú ušiġ-d-ká, a-nmḥásəb nək ídd-əs yom əlqiyáma.”

“If I did not come, we will be held accountable, me and him, (at) the day of resurrection.”

  • Undú [3] ‘if’
  • ušiġ-d- ‘to come’ pf.1sg.
  • -ká negative particle
  • a-nmḥásəb ‘to be held accountable’ fut.1pl. derived from Ar. ḥāsaba ‘to hold responsible’. This might be the one example of a passive formation with the Berber mm- reciprocal/passive prefix
  • nək ‘I’
  • ídd- ‘with, and’
  • -əs 3sg. prepositional pronoun
  • yom əlqiyáma ‘The day of resurrection’, Arabic construction.

Nək wa d-əlá slíxa s-ar míddən lə́wwəl kəddímən, ḥəkkán-dík af sídi Ḥáməd əz-Zarrúq.

‘This is what I have heard once from old people, they would tell me about sidi Ahmed Zarruq.’

  • Nək ‘I’
  • wa m.sg. deictic pronoun
  • d-əlá A construction that introduces a cleft sentence.
  • slíxa ‘to hear’ res.1sg.
  • s-ar ‘from’
  • míddən ‘people’
  • lə́wwəl ‘first??’
  • kəddímən ‘old’ m.pl.adj. cf. Ar. qadīm ‘old’ . It is very unusual to find k for Arabic q.
  • ḥəkkán- ‘to tell’ impf.3pl.m.
  • -dík 1sg. indirect object pronoun
  • af ‘at’, should be read as ‘about’, perhaps this is the fixed preposition for the meaning ‘to tell about s.th./s.o.’
  • sídi Ḥáməd əz-Zarrúq personal name

M. van Putten

Notes

[1] I would expect the word to be phonemically əlimám, but the spelling of Paradisi suggests alimám

[2] The spelling used by Paradisi, ărrafåqä́-, ĕrrafåqä́- rather points to a phonemic shape /ərrafəqə/ or /ərrafəqa/, but considering the Arabic word, it probably has to be interpreted as /ərrəfəqa/.

[3]Perhaps ə́ndu

3 Responses to Awjila Text II

  1. Hey

    This is way too technical for me!! But I can point out a few bits of Arabic you might have missed (marra, yukemmal)

    Good luck in Tunis!

    Pippa (from CS)

    • Marijn says:

      Hey, welcome first commenter!

      The fact that this is too technical for you, is understandable, but finding the right balance between being able to giving clear translations in commonly accepted linguistics abbreviations and going really in-depth into this sort of thing is difficult. The fact is that reading these translations does require quite a bit of linguistic background, yes.

      But, I hope that you can still enjoy the story translations, and are able to look at the translations of the individual words and maybe get some sense of how the language works without understanding every single linguistic detail!

      And, if you have any questions at all, do feel free to ask them, and I will try to answer them or refer you to some literature that could give you the answer.

      Also, I had indeed missed pointing out those two words. Thanks.

  2. Pingback: Another version of the Awjili “fire” story | Oriental Berber

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